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Free research papers and essays on topics related to: gallo

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  • Has Gallo Proven The Role Of Hiv In Aids - 2,768 words
    Has Gallo Proven The Role Of Hiv In Aids? Introduction In 1982, Robert Gallo from the National Cancer Institute in the USA, put forward the hypothesis that the cause of AIDS is a retrovirus. One year later, Myron Essex and his colleagues (1) found that AIDS patients had antibodies to the Human T-cell Leukemia virus Type-1 (HTLV-I), a virus discovered by Gallo a few years earlier. At the same time, Gallo and his colleagues (2) reported the isolation of HTLV-I from AIDS patients and advocated a role for this retrovirus in the pathogenesis of AIDS. This hypothesis however, was not without a few problems: 1. While HTLV-I was accepted to induce T4-cell proliferation and cause adult T-cell leukaem ...
    Related: aids, aids research, gallo, national cancer institute, second paper
  • Has Gallo Proven The Role Of Hiv In Aids - 2,802 words
    ... al features similar to retroviruses does not constitute sufficient proof that they are retroviruses, that they are infectious particles, even if they are found to band at 1.16 gm/ml.(18) In 1976 Gallo himself pointed out that in human leukemic tissue virus-like particles morphologically and biochemically resembling type-C virus but apparently lacking the ability to replicate, have been frequently observed.(28) Particles with the morphological characteristics of retroviruses were reported in milk, cultures of embryonic tissues and in the majority, if not all, human placentas.(29,30,31) However, they were considered to be an intriguing and important problem that remains to be solved.(32) E ...
    Related: aids, aids research, gallo, polymerase chain reaction, acquired immune deficiency
  • Advertising, The Good With The Bad - 1,119 words
    Advertising, The Good With The Bad Mass Communication Process Thesis Paper Advertising (Chapter 11) Advertising is a necessary market force that is responsible for the success of most, and involved in all, forms of Multimedia. It is also responsible for some of our most powerful and long-living icons that dominate the American landscape. Advertising, like it or not, is everywhere. It is on buses, billboards and hot-air balloons. It invades our living rooms, our classrooms and almost every aspect of human life. The average American is exposed to 115 advertisements during their morning commute. With this much exposure to the consumer market, one wonders weather or not this is good or bad for t ...
    Related: communication process, natural world, mass communication, drinkers, technological
  • Aids - 1,103 words
    Aids Aids Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), suppresses the immune system related to infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). A person infected with HIV gradually loses immune function along with certain immune cells called CD4 T-lymphocytes or CD4 T-cells, causing the infected person to become vulnerable to pneumonia, fungus infections, and other common ailments. With the loss of immune function, a clinical syndrome (a group of various illnesses that together characterize a disease) develops over time and eventually results in death due to opportunistic infections (infections by organisms that do not normally cause disease except in people whose immune systems have be ...
    Related: aids, deficiency syndrome, human immunodeficiency, acquired immune, bacterial
  • Aids And Retroviruses - 1,286 words
    ... AP) to a cellular receptor. Receptor molecules can be proteins (glycoproteins), or the sugar residues present on glycoproteins or glycolipids. Some complex viruses, for example, Poxviruses and Herpesviruses may have more than one receptor-binding protein, therefore, there may be alternative routes of uptake into cells. The expression or absence of receptors on the surface of cells largely determines the tropism of most viruses, that is, the type of cell in which they are able to replicate.  Penetration Unlike attachment, viral penetration is an energy-dependent process; that is, the cell must be metabolically active for this to occur. Three mechanisms may be involved:  Tr ...
    Related: aids, genetic code, life cycle, immune system, replication
  • Fitzgerald Protagonists - 1,095 words
    Fitzgerald Protagonists There is a very direct similarity between ones behavior and ones environment. Humans are products of the environments they inhabit. Humans evolve and adopt behaviors which are very similar to those found in their social climate. This is especially true when examining the characters of F. Scott Fitzgerald. Fitzgerald presents the characters in his novels as products of a society void of moral integrity. Since Fitzgeralds protagonists in The Last Tycoon, The Great Gatsby, and Tender is The Night, succumb to the moral desert of high society, they end their lives in failure. Fitzgerald places his protagonist in The Last Tycoon, The Great Gatsby , and Tender is The Night, ...
    Related: f scott fitzgerald, f. scott fitzgerald, fitzgerald, scott fitzgerald, european society
  • How Aids Has Affected Our Society - 1,238 words
    How Aids Has Affected Our Society Science - Health How Aids Has Affected Our Society Today more Americans are infected with STD's than at any other time in history. The most serious of these diseases is AIDS. Since the first cases were identified in the United States in 1981, AIDS has touched the lives of millions of American families. This deadly disease is unlike any other in modern history. Changes in social behavior can be directly linked to AIDS. Its overall effect on society has been dramatic. It is unknown whether AIDS and HIV existed and killed in the U.S. and North America before the early 1970s. However in the early 1980s, "deaths by opportunistic infections, previously observed ma ...
    Related: aids, aids epidemic, aids research, society today, social behavior
  • How The Government May Have Created Aids - 4,360 words
    ... . Although decades have passed and untold billions have been spent in research, CANCER is still with us, the second major cause of death in America. The most dreaded fear that all oncologists (cancer doctors), virologists and immunologists live with is that some day CANCER in one form or another will become a contagious disease, transferable from one person to another. AIDS has now made that fear a reality and if you think you're safe because you're not gay or promiscuous, or because you're not sexually active, then you had better watch this videotape very carefully and then watch it again and again if necessary, until you fully understand what Dr. Strecker is telling you as he takes you ...
    Related: aids, world health, state legislature, molecular biology, agency
  • Jae Hwang - 205 words
    Jae Hwang January 11, 2001 Mr. Bowen Chlodwech and year 496. Chlodwech whom refers as Clovis (466~511) was a son of Childeric I and founder of the Merovingian monarchy. Originally little more than a tribal chieftain, he became sole leader of the Salian Franks by force of perseverance and by murdering a number of relatives. After his marriage (493) to the Burgundian princess Clotilda a Catholic, he had his children baptized but was not immediately converted to a Christian. He converted to Christian after defeating Alemanni in the late 490s. some Gallo-Roman bishops lead by Remigius persuaded Clovis to become a Christian believer. Chlodwech and three thousand of his troops were baptized in Rhe ...
    Related: hwang, jesus christ, christmas, bishops
  • Medical Ethics - 1,445 words
    ... conditions or not, but that is the problem with written guidelines, they work on paper, but not necessarily in life (Levine 173). Must we experiment on human beings? If so, what human experiment categories are ethically correct? Human experimentation falls into three divisions, the first of which is, ? Experiments that the researcher carries out on him or herself ? (Weiss 34). A traditionally excepted example of this was conducted over one-hundred years ago by a scientist set on disproving the fact germs cause disease, The way he decided to prove his idea was to swallow a beakerful of cholera germs. However, he had a natural immunity to cholera; he did not become ill. It was concluded t ...
    Related: ethics, medical ethics, medical profession, medical science, medical technology
  • Preface In An Extensive Article In The Summerautumn 1990 Issue Of Top Secret, Prof J Segal And Dr L Segal Outline Their Theor - 1,218 words
    PREFACE In an extensive article in the Summer-Autumn 1990 issue of "Top Secret", Prof J. Segal and Dr. L. Segal outline their theory that AIDS is a man-made disease, originating at Pentagon bacteriological warfare labs at Fort Detrick, Maryland. "Top Secret" is the international edition of the German magazine Geheim and is considered by many to be a sister publication to the American Covert Action Information Bulletin (CAIB). In fact, Top Secret carries the Naming Names column, which CAIB is prevented from doing by the American government, and which names CIA agents in different locations in the world. The article, named "AIDS: US-Made Monster" and subtitled "AIDS - its Nature and its Origin ...
    Related: extensive, outline, preface, prof, segal
  • Preface In An Extensive Article In The Summerautumn 1990 Issue Of Top Secret, Prof J Segal And Dr L Segal Outline Their Theor - 1,209 words
    ... about 300 nucleotides, which does not exist in the visna virus. That length corresponds with what Coffin described. That section is particularly unstable, which indicates that it is an alien object. According to the Segals, it "originates in an HTLV-1 genome, (discovered by Gallo-ED) for the likelihood of an accidental occurrence in HIV of a genome sequence 60% identical with a section of the HTLV-1 that is 300 nucleotides in length is zero." Since the visna virus is incapable of attaching itself to human T4 receptors, it must have been the transfer of the HTLV-1 genome section which gave visna the capability to do so. In other words, the addition of HTLV-1 to visna made the HIV virus. ...
    Related: extensive, outline, preface, prof, segal
  • Seeing Well Without Contact Lenses And Glasses Is The Dream Of Millions Of Americans And Modern Medical Science Has Enabled T - 1,410 words
    Seeing well without contact lenses and glasses is the dream of millions of Americans and modern medical science has enabled that dream to come true (Caster, 8). Since first grade, Dede Head, a 30-year-old fitness trainer in North Carolina, has worn glasses to correct sever nearsightedness and astigmatism. Over the years she became accustomed to wearing glasses and contacts, but this has limited many important aspects of her life, including sports. She then heard of a laser eye surgery that "supposedly", helped to correct a persons vision by means of lasers. She immediately signed up for the procedure and ever since that day, she has not worn glasses or contacts. Dede is just one of the eight ...
    Related: dream, glasses, lenses, medical science, science
  • Seeing Well Without Contact Lenses And Glasses Is The Dream Of Millions Of Americans And Modern Medical Science Has Enabled T - 1,408 words
    ... results in the same patient. Each laser pulse in a LASIK procedure removes ten-millionths of an inch of corneal tissue in twelve-billionths of a second while in a PRK procedure, the laser removes about twice as much in about the same time. The amount of corneal tissue removed depends on how nearsighted or farsighted the patient is (Gorman, 60). The more nearsighted a patient is the more tissue must be removed to obtain a flatter cornea, and the same goes with farsightedness, except the cornea has to be made steeper. Back when Barraquer started Keratomileusis In Situ, he noticed that he was having great success with patients who had myopia and did not know why patients who had hyperopia a ...
    Related: dream, glasses, lenses, medical science, science
  • The - 1,929 words
    ... hich are usually non-syncytium-inducing, require the CCR-5 receptor, which is found on both monocytes and T lymphocytes. This illustrates why these isolates can infect monocytes and primary lymphocytes, both of which express CCR-5, but not T-cell lines, which lack this co-receptor. By contrast, T-cell-tropic strains cannot infect monocytes because they lack the CXCR-4 co-receptor. CD8+ T cells are thought to also secrete other soluble factors-as yet unidentified-that suppress HIV replication. The Loss of Cells of the Immune System Researchers around the world are studying how HIV destroys or disables CD4+ T cells, and it is thought that a number of mechanisms may occur simultaneously in ...
    Related: side effects, fatigue syndrome, lymph node, vulnerable
  • Wendt V Host - 4,608 words
    ... actor of likelihood of expansion of product lines weighed in Wendt's and Ratzenberger's favor as the potential existed that in the future, Ratzenberger's endorsement of other beers would be confused with his alleged endorsement of the beers sold at Host's bars. [20] A reasonable jury could have concluded that most of the factors weighed in favor of Wendt and Ratzenberger, and that Host's conduct created at least the likelihood of consumer confusion. Whether their Lanham Act claim should succeed was a matter for the jury. [21] In trademark cases, surveys are to be admitted as long as they are conducted according to accepted principles and are relevant. Challenges to methodology go to the ...
    Related: host, the courtroom, district court, kansas city, overview
  • Women And Aids - 1,473 words
    Women And Aids Understanding the Issues of Women and HIV/AIDS Rachel Seldin, Colgate University, Hamilton NY 13346 ABTRACT: Infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) had emerged as a major health problem for women in the United States. Family physicians can play an important role in the detection and care of HIV-infected women. The epidemiology and natural history of HIV infection in women were reviewed. HIV infection is now a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among young women in the United States, particularly women of racial and ethnic minorities. Most cases of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in women occur as a result of injection-drug use or heterosexual tra ...
    Related: aids, american women, young women, care services, sexually transmitted disease
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