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Free research papers and essays on topics related to: fusion

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  • Cold Fusion - 696 words
    Cold Fusion Abstract Cold fusion was first discovered in 1988 two weeks before easter. Fusion is the combination of two atoms. The sun fuses hydrogen and helium. For many years mankind has been experimenting in the field of fusion in order to harness its energy efficie ntly. Cold fusion is made in a test tube at room temperature according to Dr. B. Stanley Pons and Dr. Martin Fleischman, the inventors. As of today, there is no hard evidence of cold fusion at room temperature. When this was first discovered, Pons and Fleischman pointed out that a power source the size of a cigarette lighter could power the entire city and the top 10 feet of Lake Michigan could power the entire world for the n ...
    Related: cold fusion, fusion, inside story, lake michigan, lake
  • Fusion - 1,354 words
    Fusion Fusion reactions are inhibited by the electrical repulsive force that acts between two positively charged nuclei. For fusion to occur, the two nuclei must approach each other at high speed to overcome the electrical repulsion and attain a sufficiently small separation (less than one-trillionth of a centimeter) that the short-range strong nuclear force dominates. For the production of useful amounts of energy, a large number of nuclei must under go fusion: that is to say, a gas of fusing nuclei must be produced. In a gas at extremely high temperature, the average nucleus contains sufficient kinetic energy to undergo fusion. Such a medium can be produced by heating an ordinary gas of ne ...
    Related: fusion, magnetic field, different types, thermal energy, alpha
  • Fusion - 1,323 words
    ... eating, and the onset of nuclear fusion. The situation in star formation differs in one respect: after gravitational collapse ceases and star begins to expand again due to heat from exoergic nuclear fusion reactions, the expansion is arrested by the gravity force associated with the enormous mass of the star. In a star a state of equilibrium in both size and temperature is achieved. In ICF, by contrast, complete disassembly of fuel occurs. The fusion reaction least difficult to achieve combines a deuteron (the nucleus of the deuterium atom) with a triton (the nucleus of a tritium atom). Both nuclei are isotopes of the hydrogen nucleus and contain a single unit of positive electric charge ...
    Related: fusion, nuclear fusion, high power, greenhouse effect, shock
  • Fusion Energy - 860 words
    Fusion Energy A fusion reaction is one in which two atomic nuclei merge to form a heavier nucleus. this is the process that happens in in the stars. In average stars, like the sun, the process of fusion is converting hydrogen nuclei (or protons) into helium nuclei. There is an enormous amount of kinetic energy and gamma rays released in this process that heat the star's interior, and this realease is what maintains it at the extreamly high temperatures (greater than 10 million K) required to continue the fusion. This process has been making the stars go for billions of years has clear potential as a power source on earth. Once we have started the reaction, Fusion requires no energy and reale ...
    Related: energy source, fusion, kinetic energy, western united states, nuclear weapons
  • Fusion: Our Futures Energy - 969 words
    Fusion: Our Future's Energy? Fusion energy seems to be the most promising energy source of the not-too-distant future. It is safe, it uses an energy supply that is so abundant that it will never run out, it gives off harmless waste, and it produces energy comparable to the Earth's sun! But are there any problems with this hopeful energy source? What is Nuclear Fusion? To understand fusion, it is a good idea to know about fission. This is the splitting of the nuclei of atoms into two or more smaller nuclei by bombarding them with neutrons of low energy. It was discovered in the 1930's in an attempt to make transuranium elements (elements with atomic numbers greater than Uranium that do not ex ...
    Related: energy source, energy technology, good idea, princeton university, atomic
  • Heat Of Fusion - 423 words
    Heat Of Fusion Jason Jarrell Chemistry II 12-8-99 Heat of Fusion Objective: The objective of this experiment is to find the heat of fusion of water by using a calorimeter. The calorimeter will be used to melt ice in water to find the heat of fusion. Theory: Heat of fusion is known to be the amount of heat that it takes to allow one mole of a substance to turn from solid to liquid. The heat of fusion of water is known to be 80 cal/mol. This experiment will use a calorimeter with distilled water and ice to find an experimental value of heat of fusion of water. Equations used in this experiment will be LFM1 = M2CT where LF is the heat of fusion, M1 is the mass of the substance being mel ...
    Related: fusion, heat, human error, melting, extra
  • Nuclear Fusion - 508 words
    Nuclear Fusion Nuclear Fusion is the energy-producing process which takes place continuously in the sun and stars. In the core of the sun at temperatures of 10-15 million degrees Celsius, Hydrogen is converted to Helium providing enough energy for us to sustain life on earth. For energy production on earth, different fusion reactions are involved. The most suitable reaction occurs between the nuclei of the two light forms (isotopes) of Hydrogen - Deuterium and Tritium; eventually reactions involving just Deuterium or Deuterium and Helium may be used. A brief breakdown of the fuels used are as follows, Deuterium is a very abundant isotope of hydrogen and can be extracted from all forms of wat ...
    Related: fusion, nuclear, nuclear fusion, personal opinion, acid rain
  • The Societal Issue Being Addressed In This Article Is The Cloning Of Humans And Nuclear Cell Fusion This Question Lingering I - 736 words
    The societal issue being addressed in this article is the cloning of humans and nuclear cell fusion. This question lingering into every household...Should we be playing God? This question has substantial points on each side. Some people think that we shouldnt be manipulating natures creations ,and we should leave things the way they are because that is the way things are meant to be. Others oppose that jurisdiction and state that we can rid the world of cancers and tumors and quite possibly save lives. Others dont believe strongly either way, though believe in restricted means of distinguishing forms of cloning using safe and well-tested means. Research on human embryos has been minimal over ...
    Related: cell, cloning, fusion, nuclear, societal
  • Why Nuclear Fusion Is So Cool For A Fusion Reaction To Take Place, The Nuclei, Which Are Positively Charged, Must Have Enough - 1,186 words
    Why nuclear fusion is so cool....... For a fusion reaction to take place, the nuclei, which are positively charged, must have enough kinetic energy to overcome their electrostatic force of repulsion. This can occur either when one nucleus is accelerated to high energies by an accelerating device, or when the energies of both nuclei are raised by the application of very high temperature. The latter method, referred to the application of thermonuclear fusion, is the source of a lot of really cool energy. Enough energy is produced in thermonuclear fusion to suck the paint of 1 city block of houses and give all of the residents permanent orange Afros. The sun is a example of thermonuclear fusion ...
    Related: cold fusion, cool, fusion, nuclear, nuclear fusion, positively
  • Why Nuclear Fusion Is So Cool For A Fusion Reaction To Take Place, The Nuclei, Which Are Positively Charged, Must Have Enough - 1,193 words
    ... be one of those wacky science thingys. Sort of like why inflammable and flammable mean the same thing. Who knows. Anyway, Magnetic-field configurations fall into two typed: open and closed. Wow, that was real obvious. In an open configuration, the charged particles, which are spiraling along magnetic field lines maintained by a solenoid, are reflected at each end of a cell by stronger magnetic fields. I have found in my research that if one used a 9-volt battery (preferably from a old smoke detector) the reaction takes place much more efficiently. In this simplest type of mirror machine, many particles that have most of their velocity parallel to the solenoidal magnetic field are not re ...
    Related: cool, fusion, nuclear, nuclear fusion, positively
  • A Cultural Approach - 964 words
    A Cultural Approach The cultural and developmental aspects of American history in the 17th and 18th centuries are certainly among the most important and influential factors in the shaping of this country's long and storied history. Historiographically speaking, there are undoubtedly thousands upon thousands of different studies and opinions on the most influential cultural strides of early Americans well as the pros and cons that each colonial region developed in shaping America and readying it for the Revolutionary Era. Each of these four studies brings a slightly different and even, at times, conflicting approach to analyzing the cultural and social roots of early America, but each one pro ...
    Related: colonial period, urban areas, middle america, dynamic, portion
  • A Journey Though The Golden Gates Of Promise - 2,284 words
    ... because, without them, the United States would become overpopulated and it would slowly deteriorate. If Congress did not create the quota laws as a way to control who is allowed to enter the country, it would leave the magnificent "Golden Gates" open to anyone who wanted to enter the promise land. It is insane to even consider letting everyone of every ethnicity into the United States because the results would be devastating for the American society. American citizens often criticize that the quota laws discriminate towards different ethnic groups, but, in reality, it is common sense to prefer letting immigrants into the country that are more likely to "fit in" with the cultures being p ...
    Related: golden, promise, another country, labor laws, reject
  • A Parasite Is Defined As An Organism That Lives In Or On Another Organism, Called A Host 2 If The Parasite Has The Capacity T - 1,538 words
    A parasite is defined as an organism that lives in or on another organism, called a host (2). If the parasite has the capacity to cause disease in the host then the parasite is called a pathogen. Disease in the host is caused by the infection of the parasite. The interaction between the host and parasite is complex. Both the pathogen and the host strive for survival in some of the cases. The pathogen divides within or on the host in an attempt to keep its species alive while the hosts defense mechanisms simultaneously attempt to eliminate the pathogen. The extent of the battle for survival varies depending on the relationship. This paper discusses the disease state of Chlamydia; how the orga ...
    Related: capacity, host, organism, parasite, upper saddle
  • Aging Theories - 1,709 words
    Aging Theories This report outlines the main theories of how the process of aging works. Since researchers have not discovered a universally-accepted theory of aging, the theories discussed are potential explanations of how we age. The likelihood of each hypothesis is considered roughly equal. The different theories discussed focus on the workings of different parts of the body, from the molecular level of DNA mutations and replication, to the organism level of becoming "worn out." Aging is a very complex and gradual process, and its ongoing operation is present to some degree in all individuals. It is a journey to the maturity, as well as to the degeneration of the body. Because aging affec ...
    Related: aging, aging process, cell division, free radicals, gradual
  • Aids - 1,140 words
    ... rom a few days to several weeks and is associated with fever, sweats, exhaustion, loss of appetite, nausea, headaches, soar throat, diarrhea, swollen glands, and a rash on the torso. Some of the symptoms of the acute illness may result from HIV-1 invasion of the central nervous system. In some cases the clinical findings have correlated with the presence of HIV-1 in the cerebrospinal fluid. Symptoms disappear along with the rash and other sings of acute viral disease. When the blood test for HIV-1 antibodies become available, researchers demonstrated the lymphadenopathy was a frequent consequence of infection with the virus. Scientist do not know what causes the wasting syndrome, but som ...
    Related: aids, immune system, human immunodeficiency, recent studies, regulation
  • Aids And Retroviruses - 1,241 words
    AIDS And Retroviruses Today, tens of millions of people around the world are going to die young because they are infected by HIV, the virus that causes AIDS. The primary AIDS virus is HIV-1, which can be spread via sexual intercourse or drug use (activities, which result in body fluid exchange like blood and semen). HIV can also be passed from mother to child and can also be acquired during blood transfusions. AIDS, Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, is a virus that causes a loss of protection against disease causing microorganisms. People who are infected by AIDS usually have a decline in the number of T-cells that are responsible for their immune system. Because the virus reproduces by a ...
    Related: aids, immune system, deficiency syndrome, fact sheet, mediate
  • Aids And Retroviruses - 1,286 words
    ... AP) to a cellular receptor. Receptor molecules can be proteins (glycoproteins), or the sugar residues present on glycoproteins or glycolipids. Some complex viruses, for example, Poxviruses and Herpesviruses may have more than one receptor-binding protein, therefore, there may be alternative routes of uptake into cells. The expression or absence of receptors on the surface of cells largely determines the tropism of most viruses, that is, the type of cell in which they are able to replicate.  Penetration Unlike attachment, viral penetration is an energy-dependent process; that is, the cell must be metabolically active for this to occur. Three mechanisms may be involved:  Tr ...
    Related: aids, genetic code, life cycle, immune system, replication
  • Air And Water - 412 words
    Air And Water A major transition in the modern energy age began in the 1970s, when the big nations industry started to grow up rapidly. The use of oil was very important and overnight, oil prices shot through the roof, and the trend of ever-cheaper, ever-more-plentiful energy sources were in need. Another player on the modern energy stage is nuclear power. An industry that didn't exist 40 years ago is now at a huge amount of production, producing 20 percent of the nation's electricity. Ironically, the industry is fading out. New orders ceased 20 years ago, and as aging plants reach the end of their lives, they are closing, one by one. All the non-renewable energy resources have positive and ...
    Related: renewable energy, fuel cells, nuclear fusion, chernobyl, cheap
  • Anatomy Of A Muscle Cell - 1,017 words
    Anatomy Of A Muscle Cell John Centore1 Anatomy and Physiology Dr. Jain Anatomy of Muscle Cells There are three types of muscle tissue in the human body. These muscle tissues are skeletal muscles, smooth muscles and cardiac muscles. Each of these muscle tissues has it very own anatomical makeup, which vary from muscle to muscle. The muscle cells in a muscle are referred to as muscle fibers, these fibers are skeletal muscle fibers, smooth muscle fibers and cardiac muscle fibers. The anatomy of a skeletal muscle fiber is formed during embryonic development. Skeletal muscle fibers arise from a hundred or more small mesodermal cells called myoblasts. The mature skeletal muscle fiber has a hundred ...
    Related: anatomy, anatomy physiology, cell, cell division, muscle, muscle growth
  • Anthopleura - 1,224 words
    Anthopleura Elegantissima The sea anemones that were collected for the "Clone Specific Segregation in the Sea Anemone Anthopleura elegantissima" experiment were collected by Lisbeth Francis in Pacific Grove, California (Biological Bulletin 1973, 144; 64-72). The topic of Franciss report is the particularity of the constant anemone-free areas dividing contiguous accumulations of these anemones and the connection of these areas to the dispersion and manner of these anemones. In her report Francis describes how she did her experiment and the result of each step. Francis also includes a discussion section where she discusses advantages versus disadvantages of segregated aggregations and organism ...
    Related: sea anemones, aggressive behavior, ocean life, aggressive, segregated
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