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Free research papers and essays on topics related to: american psychological

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  • Albert Bandura - 1,021 words
    ... reproduce it with your own behavior. 3. Reproduction. You have to translate the images or descriptions into actual behavior. Our ability to imitate improves with practice at the behaviors involved. In addition, our abilities improve even when we just imagine ourselves performing the behavior. 4. Motivation. Yet with all this, youre still not going to do anything unless you are motivated to imitate or until you have some reason for doing it. Bandura mentions a number of motives: past reinforcement (traditional behaviorism), promised reiforcement (incentives we can imagine), and vicarious reinforcement (seeing and recalling the model being reinforced). In addition there are negative motiv ...
    Related: albert, albert bandura, bandura, american psychological, social psychology
  • Animal Experimentation - 777 words
    Animal Experimentation Animal Experimentation ANIMAL RIGHTS-- The Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals was founded in England in 1824 to promote humane treatment of work animals, such as cattle and horses, and of household pets. Within a few decades similar organizations existed throughout Europe. An American society was founded in New York in 1866. Then after, these organizations were protesting the use of animals in laboratory experiments and the use of vivisection for teaching. Until the mid-1970s the focus on humane treatment of animals continued. After that period, animal rights activists enlarged their priorities, considerably. It is estimated that 70 million animals are us ...
    Related: animal behavior, animal experimentation, animal research, animal rights, animal testing, experimentation
  • Behavioral Learning - 982 words
    Behavioral Learning BEHAVIORAL LEARNING THEORIES Educational Psychology Journal Article Presentation Most theorists agree that learning occurs when experience causes a change in a person's knowledge or behavior . Behaviorists emphasize the role of environmental stimuli in learning and focus on the behavior, i.e., an observable response. Behavioral theories are based on contiguity, classical and operant conditioning, applied behavior analysis, social learning theory and self-regulation/cognitive behavior modification. Early views of learning were contiguity and classical conditioning. In contiguity learning, two events are repeatedly paired together and become associated in the learner's mind ...
    Related: behavioral, classroom learning, learning process, learning theories, learning theory, observational learning, social learning
  • Big Lebowski - 676 words
    Big Lebowski The Big Lebowski According to Robert B. Ray's "The Thematic Paradigm," classical Hollywood develops "character(s that) magically embody diametrically opposite traits (299)." This method is used to appeal to "a collective American imagination steeped in myths of inclusiveness (299)." In other words, characters that portray a wide variety of traits, in many cases opposite traits, appeal to the American audience by embodying a portion of each viewer in the character. This method is clearly portrayed through the characters in the movie, "The Big Lebowski." "The Big Lebowski," is about "The Dude" (Jeff Bridges), a down-and-out, unemployed drifter who is still living in the haze of th ...
    Related: los angeles, american psychological, angeles county, alley, missing
  • Chimpanzees - 803 words
    Chimpanzees A new study has shown that chimpanzees may be able to determine whether their partners know they are in danger. This suggests that these primates are able to decide how ignorant or informed their peers are about an unexpected situation. The finding, made by a team of researchers at Ohio State University's Comparative Cognition Project, suggests that chimps share with humans the ability to perceive the knowledge state of a peer, and perhaps the intention to protect that peer. Earlier experiments with both rhesus and Japanese macaque monkeys failed to show the same abilities in those animals. These new results strengthen the argument that in some ways, chimpanzees are closer to hum ...
    Related: ohio state, national institute, american psychological, couldn, prediction
  • Clinical Psychology - 1,054 words
    Clinical Psychology Clinical Psychology The word psychology can translate to mean "the science of the soul." Since Aristotle, psychology has become both a science and a profession. As a profession, it is the application of understanding people and their behavior to help solve human problems (Careers, 1993). A psychologist usually concentrates on one specialty that is of particular interest. There are many different fields of psychology to study. Clinical psychologists work with people with emotional and mental problems (Career Discovery, 1997). A clinical psychologist basically prevents, evaluates, and treats mental and emotional disorders in individuals. "Disorders range from minor problems ...
    Related: applied psychology, clinical, clinical practice, clinical psychology, general psychology, health psychology, psychology
  • Differences Between Counseling And Psychotherapy - 1,862 words
    Differences Between Counseling and Psychotherapy Counseling Theories August 3, 1995 Running head: Coun. v. Psychotherapy Counseling v. psychotherapy is there a difference between the two? This paper will attempt to prove that there are several differences between counseling and psychotherapy. While counseling and psychotherapy have several different elements in each, the following information will also attempt to show the reader that there are some areas where the two overlap. At times this was a confusing topic to research. A fine line distinguishes the two topics and one must look hard to see this line. Definition of Counseling One survey taken by Gustad suggests a definition of counseling ...
    Related: counseling, psychotherapy, personal growth, psychological association, productive
  • Domestic Violence: Theory, Effects Interventions - 2,773 words
    ... m establishing a meaningful context for understanding the abuse and may provide, especially for their daughters, a model of passive and ineffective problem solving. Therefore, this passivity can be reflected in school by low academic achievement, school phobia, difficulties in concentration, and social isolation. Mediating Factors It is important to state that much of the research on the effects of children witnessing domestic violence is contingent upon mediating factors, and thus these factors have been taken into consideration when conclusions have been made on the severity of the effects. These mediating factors include the following. Severity of Violence Witnessed Children who witne ...
    Related: crisis intervention, domestic violence, harmful effects, therapeutic intervention, publishing company
  • Dreams - 935 words
    Dreams DREAMS Dreaming is an experience that has fascinated people for a very long time. Although researches about dreams have been limited in the past, it has developed tremendously in its field of science. There are many explanations why people dream, but there are three main theoretical explanations for why there is dreaming: the biological view, the cognitive view, and the psychoanalytic view. I will be assessing a dream of my own, using all three perspectives. All three views have been debated thoroughly in the past, but it is the psychoanalytic view that has created the most attention to me. In the end, I will show why I find the psychoanalytic view most valuable. I recently had a very ...
    Related: dreams, make sense, john wiley, psychological association, explaining
  • Ellis And Glasser - 1,889 words
    Ellis And Glasser Albert Ellis and William Glasser have been in the mainstream of psychological society for over four decades. Both have contributed greatly to modern psychotherapy. The Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) of Albert Ellis and the Reality therapy of William Glasser have endured the trendy world of psychology and in fact as they are based in ancient philosophy (Epictetus, Marcus Aurelius), they also remain the foundation for brief therapy, cognitive behavioral therapy and ecclectisism. Their strength is in the flexibility and simplicity inherent in each. They go directly to the problem and focus energy there without lengthy psychotherapy. Both prolific writers and dedicate ...
    Related: albert ellis, ellis, glasser, william glasser, ancient philosophy
  • General History Of - 1,116 words
    General History Of Psych Two Take-Home Essay The study of Behaviorism dates can be traced back to the classical Greek philosophers, and goes into the nineteenth and twentieth-century psychology. Below is a list of fundamental psychologists and their contributions. * Greeks Philosophers and psychologists have been intrigued with the human thought process for thousands of years, with one of the first being the Greek philosopher Aristotle. He presented some of the first operational methods in how human learning and memory are formed. He also emphasized the importance of mental imagery. * Wundt William Wundt is considered the father of Psychology when he opened his laboratory in Leipzig, Germany ...
    Related: general history, history, research method, natural selection, cognition
  • Homosexual Marriage And The Catholic Church - 1,286 words
    Homosexual Marriage And The Catholic Church Imagine you were born into a world where being straight was taboo. You were raised by same sex parents, as all of your friends. Fornication of the opposite sex was merely to have children, but a relationship between the two was virtually unheard of. It was believed that same sex parents provided a better home for children. Love between a man and a man (or a woman and a woman) was believed to be the perfect love because it was loving an equal. If one should love the opposite sex it was believed that they secretly wanted to be that sex. Everything you have ever known and been taught was based around same sex relationships. When you watch television e ...
    Related: catechism of the catholic church, catholic, catholic church, homosexual, homosexual marriage
  • Information On The Career Of Psychology - 1,260 words
    Information On The Career Of Psychology Psychology Job Outlook Employment of psychologists is expected to grow more slowly than the average for all occupations through the year 2006. More job opportunities will arise in businesses, nonprofit, organizations, and research and computer firms for psychologists working as consultants. Companies will use psychologists expertise in survey design, analysis, and research to provide marketing evaluation and statistical analysis. Opportunities for people holding doctorates from leading universities in areas with an applied emphasis, such as clinical, counseling, health, and educational psychology, should have particularly good prospects. Psychologists ...
    Related: abnormal psychology, applied psychology, clinical psychology, cognitive psychology, educational psychology, psychology, school psychology
  • Intelligence: Genetic And Environmental Factors - 1,957 words
    ... ay not be passed down because they are broken up at meiosis and a new genotype is formed at conception. One of the consequences of the Human Genome Project, tasked with sequencing the entire human complement of DNA, is a public perception that scientists are developing a molecular understanding of the human condition. Seldom a month goes by without a media article trumpeting a new genetic link to a behavior or disease. Everything from schizophrenia to television watching is postulated to be linked to genetics, yet scientists are a long way from being able to explain the ramifications of the human genome sequence. Kaye (1992) suggests that phrasing used by the media such as gene for alcoh ...
    Related: biological factors, cultural factors, environmental, environmental factors, environmental influences, genetic
  • Juvenileviolence - 1,025 words
    Juvenile+Violence Emanuel Mullins Enwr 106 2/7/00 Juvenile Violence-The latest craze? Two boys at an Arkansas middle school killed four girls and one teacher in what police called a carefully planned ambush on the afternoon of Tuesday March 25, 1998. Nine other girls and one other teacher were also wounded in the attack at the Westside Middle School, located in a quiet rural area just west of Jonesboro, Arkansas. In a similar incident in Littleton, Colorado, two students, cloaked in black trench coats and armed with guns and bombs, opened fire on the morning of Tuesday April 21, 1999 at Columbine High School, killing 15 people and wounding 28 others in the worst school shooting in U.S. histo ...
    Related: rural area, u.s. history, american psychological, music, juvenile
  • Knowledge And Perceived Risk Of Major Diseases - 1,299 words
    Knowledge And Perceived Risk Of Major Diseases KNOWLEDGE AND PERCEIVED RISK OF MAJOR DISEASES IN MIDDLE AGED AND OLDER WOMEN Hudson Valley Community College Fall Semester, 2000 General Psychology, Course 02587-588 Abstract The American Psychological Association Journal Article this paper is based on focuses on the knowledge of health related risks and behaviors of middle age and older age women, and specifically women's "knowledge of perceived risk of major disease" (Wilcox & Stefanick, 1999). A link between lifestyle and chronic disease in old age has been established. In addition, the belief that age was a risk factor for breast and colon cancer actually decreased with increasing age among ...
    Related: cardiovascular disease, chronic disease, coronary heart disease, disease control, heart disease, risk factor
  • Managed Care - 1,383 words
    Managed Care Managed Care By Debbie Barbaroussis-Goot Regis University Dr. Ron Shaver April 16, 2001 To decide on whether or not an issue is considered ethical or moral we need the hard cold facts. Facts expose or explain what is to be decided upon - not what the outcome should be. Decisions regarding health care and mental health issues represent a major portion of ethical and moral choices. As individuals we are not always able to understand the justice, or fairness, behind the decisions supposedly based on hard cold facts. Once upon a time being a therapist was considered a calling. The images of a counselor sitting back in their comfy cushioned chairs listening to hours and hours of pati ...
    Related: care delivery, care policy, care providers, care system, health care, managed care
  • Mary Whiton Calkins - 1,247 words
    Mary Whiton Calkins INTRODUCTION Mary Whiton Calkins, is best known for two things: becoming the first woman president of The American Psychological Association and being denied her doctorate from Harvard. However, these two aspects only make up a small portion of what she accomplished in her life. Her entire life was dedicated to her work, especially the development of her Psychology of selves. She founded an early psychology laboratory and invented the paired-associate technique. She passionately dove into the new field of Psychology but also was highly active in the field of Philosophy. She was not deterred by being a woman and used her struggles to gain a voice to speak out against women ...
    Related: calkins, mary, early life, woman president, knit
  • Mary Whiton Calkins - 1,236 words
    ... t considered. RESEARCH & ACHIEVEMENTS In 1895, Calkins returned to Wellesley College where she was made an Associate Professor of Psychology and Philosophy and was promoted to Professor in 1898. She wrote hundreds of papers divided between the two disciplines. Calkins' writings encompass more than a hundred papers in professional journals of psychology and philosophy. She wrote four books, including, An Introduction to Psychology (1901); The Persistent Problems of Philosophy (1907), which went through five editions; and The Good Man and the Good (1918). Throughout this period Calkins did work in both the fields of psychology and philosophy. For example, in the same year she published an ...
    Related: calkins, mary, right to vote, associate professor, harvard
  • Media Violence And Its Effects On Children - 1,068 words
    ... 993 report by the American Psychological Association stated: - Viewing violence increases fear of becoming a Victim of violence, with an increase in self- Protective behavior and an increase in mistrust. - Viewing violence increases desensitization to Violence, resulting in callused attitudes Toward violence. - Violent programming increases the viewers Appetite for becoming involved or exposing Themselves to violence. Not only is the mentality of the child affect but also the physical conditions of the viewer (Bok 54). The basic physical needs of children such as developing healthy hearts and lungs are directly endangered by the number of hours spent in front of the television set (Bok 5 ...
    Related: family violence, media, media violence, violence, violence in the media
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