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Free research papers and essays on topics related to: eukaryotic

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  • Eukaryotic Organelles - 324 words
    Eukaryotic Organelles The mitochondria has an eggshape structure. The mitochondria consists of an inner and outer membrane. The outer membrane is what shapes the organelle to its egglike shape. The inner membrane which folds inward makes a set of "shelves" or cristae that allow the reactions of the mitochondria to take place. The more the mitochondria makes these reactions the more the inner membrane folds. This happens because the mitochondria now has more surface area connecting it to its surroundings. The processes that the mitochondria make are to break down the high energy organic molecules into smaller more useful packages. The endoplasmic reticulum is a network of tubes and channels t ...
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  • The Role Of Transport Proteins In Eukaryotic Organisms And Their Potential Exploitation In Genetically Modified Plants - 1,228 words
    The role of transport proteins in eukaryotic organisms and their potential exploitation in genetically modified plants There are three major types of membrane transport proteins (Lodish, et. al, 1995). ATP-powered pumps derive the energy required for energetically unfavorable transport of ions or molecules via the hydrolysis of ATP. Channel proteins engage in passive transport, moving particular ions, or water down their respective concentration gradients. Transporters use the slowest mechanism for transport binding only one or a few substrate molecules for transport at a time. All three of these types of molecules contribute to the amazing selectivity of plasma membranes and are, thus, crit ...
    Related: eukaryotic, exploitation, genetically, genetically modified, modified, organisms, plant species
  • Bacteria Outline - 1,338 words
    Bacteria Outline Bacteria - Oldest, structurally simplest, most abundant forms of life - Only organism with prokaryotic cellular organization - The only members of the kingdom Monera (4800 different kinds) - Characteristics change depending on growth conditions - Maintenance of life depends on them - play vital role of productivity and as decomposers - Capable of fixing atmospheric N for use by other organisms - Used in production and fermentation of various food and as antibiotics and is being tested for insect control - Prokaryotes vs. Eukaryotes - Multi-cellularity - All bacteria fundamentally single celled - Sometimes cells adhere within a matrix to form filaments - Activities of bacteri ...
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  • Bio Outline - 2,483 words
    ... lecule of glucose requires (1) 18 ATP 7.3 kcal/mole x 18 = 131.4 kcal (2) 12 NADPH 53 kcal/mole x 12 = 636 kcal (a) Note 53 kcal/mole - ref: Campbell pg. 178 for NADH to O2 H2 O (3) Takes 767.4 kcal to make 1 molecule of glucose (686 kcal) (a) 686/767.4 = 89% efficiency. F. PHOTORESPIRATION (Use Study Sheet) 1. Rubisco prefers O2 to CO2 2. If rubisco binds O2 a. Process uses 6 additional ATP b. Regenerates RuBP c. Produces a 2-C compound (instead of 3-C) d. This compound is sent to peroxisome and mitochondrion (1) converted to Glycerate (3C) (2) transported back to chloroplast (3) Uses ATP to convert to 3-PGAL 3. NET LOSS OF ENERGY 4. Some plants waste as much as 50% of the energy they ...
    Related: outline, compare and contrast, citric acid cycle, krebs cycle, acid
  • Evolution - 1,330 words
    Evolution Evolution, a process of change through time, is what links together the enormous diversity of the living world. A lot of evidence is present that indicates that the earth has had a very long history and that all living things arose in the course of that history from earlier, more simpler forms. In other words, all species have descended from other species and all living things share common ancestors in the past. Basically, organisms are what they are because of their history. Today there are many theories and possibilities related to evolution which contribute to our understanding of the process. Our planet was born 4.6 billion years ago as a great cloud of dust and gas condensed i ...
    Related: evolution, theory of evolution, natural selection, ultimate goal, experiment
  • Evolution - 1,327 words
    ... observed that wild animals and plants showed variations just as domesticated animals and plants did. He filled his notebooks with records of height, weight, color, claw size, tail length, and other characteristics among members of the same species. He also observed that high birthrates and a shortage of lifes necessities forced organisms into a constant "struggle for existence," both against the environment and against each other. Plant stems grow tall in search of sunlight, plant roots grow deep into the soil in search of water and nutrients. All that evidence is what supported Darwins theory about natural selection. Peppered moths provide an example of natural selection in action. Pepp ...
    Related: evolution, evolution theory, theory of evolution, people believe, early stages
  • Plant And Animal Cells - 1,505 words
    Plant and Animal Cells subject = Honors Biology title = PLant and Animal Cells Plant and Animal Cells I. Introduction All organisms in life are composed of at least one or more cells. Cells are the basic units of life. There are three main features of a cell. First, all organisms consist of one or more cells. Second, cells are the smallest units of life and third, cells arise only from preexisting cells. These three facts are referred to as the cell theory. All cells can be categorized into two basic cell types. They are prokaryotic and eukaryotic. To distinguish where cells are placed in the two categories, what is inside the cell must first be looked at. Every cell, either prokaryotic or e ...
    Related: animal cells, eukaryotic cells, plant, over time, categories
  • The Bubonic Plague - 1,400 words
    THE BUBONIC PLAGUE THE BUBONIC PLAGUE Plague, was a term that was used in the Middle Ages to describe all fatal epidemic diseases, but now it is only applied to an infectious, contagious disease of rodents and humans. In humans, plague occurs in three forms: bubonic plague, pneumonic plague, and septicemic plague. The best known form is the bubonic plague and it is named after buboes, or enlarged, inflamed lymph nodes, which are characteristics of the plague in the groin or neck or armpit. Bubonic plague can only be transmitted by the bite of any of numerous insects that are normally parasitic on rodents and that seek new hosts when the original host dies. If the plague is left untreated it ...
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  • The Bubonic Plague - 1,473 words
    THE BUBONIC PLAGUE Rana Kundu Introduction Plague, was a term that was applied in the Middle Ages to all fatal epidemic diseases, but now it is only applied to an acute, infectious, contagious disease of rodents and humans, caused by a short, thin, gram-negative bacillus. In humans, plague occurs in three forms: bubonic plague, pneumonic plague, and septicemic plague. The best known form is the bubonic plague and it is named after buboes, or enlarged, inflamed lymph nodes, which are characteristics of the plague in the groin or neck or armpit. Bubonic plague can only be transmitted by the bite of any of numerous insects that are normally parasitic on rodents and that seek new hosts when the ...
    Related: bubonic, bubonic plague, plague, northern india, world war ii
  • The Immortality Switch: - 1,333 words
    THE IMMORTALITY SWITCH: TURNING TELOMERASE FUNCTIONALITY ON AND OFF Abstract: A role of telomeres in the aging process and cancer has long been known to exist. Furthermore, telomerase a reverse transcriptase enzyme, has been well characterized as a polymerizing agent of the 3' hydroxy end of DNA strands. The specifics of the roles of telomeres and telomerase and their relations to other cellular processes, however, still need to be better defined. Given the current level of understanding of telomerase, however one deduction can be made with certainty. The most useful information research will be able to provide regarding telomerase's applicability as a clinical treatment tool, is information ...
    Related: immortality, human cancer, genetic information, life span, clinical
  • Why Cells Are Small - 291 words
    Why Cells Are Small annon Cells are the basic structural and functional units of life. As life on earth has evolved into organisms of varying complexities, two basic laws of nature have dictated why cells have remained so small. Shorter is faster. This is true both in terms of diffusion and in terms of chemical and electrical movement. By minimizing the the distance between a cells nucleus and and the numerous proteins and organelles that it must constantly regulate , a cell is maximizing the speed in which intercellular communications can take place while providing the ideal conditions for diffusion: a vital function in the life of a cell. Like wise, the surface area and volume of a cell ar ...
    Related: growth rate, surface area, communicate, eukaryotic
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