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Free research papers and essays on topics related to: egyptian

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  • Ancient Egyptian And Mesopotamian Cultures - 1,548 words
    Ancient Egyptian And Mesopotamian Cultures Ancient Egyptian and Mesopotamian Cultures Around the time 4,000-1,000 BC there were two major western civilizations. Those civilizations were the Ancient Egyptians and the Mesopotamians. Many similarities exist between the civilizations of Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia, as well as many differences. Both Egypt and Mesopotamia were polytheistic, that is, they believed their worlds were ruled by more than one god. Both cultures also believed that they themselves were created for the purpose of serving their gods. Their similarities include the existence of educational systems and codes of law. Their differences are found partly in those similarities, ...
    Related: ancient civilizations, ancient egypt, ancient egyptians, egyptian, mesopotamian
  • Ancient Egyptian Mathematics - 1,010 words
    Ancient Egyptian Mathematics Ancient Egyptian Mathematics The use of organized mathematics in Egypt has been dated back to the third millennium BC. Egyptian mathematics was dominated by arithmetic, with an emphasis on measurement and calculation in geometry. With their vast knowledge of geometry, they were able to correctly calculate the areas of triangles, rectangles, and trapezoids and the volumes of figures such as bricks, cylinders, and pyramids. They were also able to build the Great Pyramid with extreme accuracy. Early surveyors found that the maximum error in fixing the length of the sides was only 0.63 of an inch, or less than 1/14000 of the total length. They also found that the err ...
    Related: egyptian, mathematics, dover publications, cliff notes, handbook
  • Ancient Egyptian Medicine - 1,039 words
    Ancient Egyptian Medicine Ancient Egyptian Medicine The Nile river is known almost universally by historians as the cradle of medicine because it passes through the great region of Egypt. Egypt greatly contributed to the western civilization. Their knowledge was far superior to any previous civilization, and many civilizations to come. One of their greatest achievements was in the field of medicine because they replaced myth with medical fact, this laid the foundations for modern medical practice. They discovered the cause of various illnesses and developed a cure. They practiced both medical and spiritual healing so the worlds of religion and science could coexist. With the discoveries of s ...
    Related: ancient egypt, egyptian, medicine, family tradition, state court
  • Ancient Egyptian Medicine - 1,065 words
    ... le from the Fourth Dynasty that indicates that there was an attempt to drill a hole in one of the teeth. Possibly the first prosthesis was found in 1929 in Giza where two teeth were found with gold wire fixed to the teeth. Also they have found several mummies with artificial teeth. The study of several mummies indicates poor teeth condition. This can be attributed to the lack of nutrition, mostly lower class citizens. In the Papyrus Ebers, they found parts of a dental monograph titled "The Beginning of Remedies for Stronger Teeth." Carious teeth were treated with a mixture of ocher, flour, spelt, and honey. Fillings were made out of a combination of malachite and resin. The Ancient Egypt ...
    Related: ancient egyptians, egyptian, medicine, modern medicine, lower class
  • Art Egyptian - 1,790 words
    Art- Egyptian Fragment Of a Wall Relief As I entered the upper Egyptian gallery at the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology I noticed a women giving a lecture to a small group concerning some of the monuments in the gallery. Lucky enough, I got a chance to catch the end of her lecture, and coincidentally it was about this piece entitled Fragment of a Wall Relief. This particular piece is from the Amarna period or 18th dynasty of ancient Egypt, dating from about 1367-1350 BCE. I picked this piece specifically because of the period in which it derives. The armana period has boggled me ever since we learned about it in class. In this paper I hope to uncover the hist ...
    Related: egyptian, egyptian art, egyptian culture, lower egypt, small group
  • Egyptian Art Statue From Metropolitn Museum - 1,159 words
    Egyptian Art Statue from Metropolitn Museum Egyptian Art Statue from Metropolitn Museum This superb pair standing statue remains semi-attached to the limestone block from which they were carved. There is chipping on the surface of Memi's (man) right arm. A portion of Sabu's (woman) nose and her lips appear to be chipped off as well. On the lower part of Sabu's body there is chipping on both legs and right underneath her pelvic area. There are visible horizontal lines that cut right across Memi's right forearm and underneath Sabu's breasts. These lines may indicate what pieces of the statue had to be mended back together. There is also chipping on the bottom right hand corner of the stone sla ...
    Related: egyptian, egyptian art, museum, statue, left hand
  • Egyptian Cosmogony And Other Weirdness: - 393 words
    Egyptian Cosmogony and other weirdness: The embodiment of a complex society formed long before its rightful time is that of the Egyptians. Their mastery of both social and scientific knowledge was without equal, even by Roman standards. From a purely technical standpoint the stone work of the Egyptians had no precedent. With few modern exceptions Egyptian measurement and architecture was unique in its perfection. Their views were strongly influenced by their god(s). This reverence is plainly visible in their writings/carvings. Use of symbol was key to their knowledge, as was the passing of tradition to the following generations. In reading the text and hearing the lectures I found it almost ...
    Related: cosmogony, egyptian, egyptian mythology, cell division, creation myth
  • Egyptian Death Rituals - 1,024 words
    Egyptian Death Rituals The death of Pharaoh On a balmy November day in 1922 one of the greatest archeological finds ever would be made. It all started with the discovery of a single rough cut stone step, the first in a staircase that would lead to the most celebrated tomb of modern times. Howard Carter's discovery of the tomb of Tutankhamen would capture popular attention like no other discover before or after it. With each item brought from the tomb the public wanted to know more and more about the boy-king of Egypt. Probably the most intriguing and perplexing question surrounding the tomb is the mystery surrounding the death of the young Pharaoh. It has been over three thousand and three h ...
    Related: egyptian, egyptian culture, rituals, howard carter, modern times
  • Egyptian Death Rituals - 1,040 words
    ... ign, Tutankhaten changed his name to Tutankhamen and that of his wife to Ankhesenamen (Reeves 25). This may have been done because of personal preference but more probably was done to placate the priests of Amen-Re; It was undoubtedly a signal that Amen-Re had returned to favor. The first question about the death of Tutankhamen that needs to be answered is that of the nature of his death. The two examinations of Tutankhamen's mummy found evidence that may answer this question for us. The first examination, conducted in 1925 when the mummy was unwrapped, found a dark coloroed lesion on the left cheek. It is slightly depressed from the rest of the skin, and looks somewhat like a scab (Cart ...
    Related: egyptian, rituals, political situation, more important, chart
  • Egyptian Pyramids - 836 words
    Egyptian Pyramids When most people think of Ancient Egypt they think of Pyramids. To construct such great monuments required a mastery of architecture, social organization, and art that few cultures of that period could achieve. The oldest pyramid, the Step-Pyramids, grow out of the abilities of two men, King Djoser and Imhotep. Djoser, the second king of 3rd dynasty, was the first king to have hired an architect, Imhotep, to design a tomb (Time-Life Books, 74). Imhotep was known as the father of mathematics, medicine, architecture, and as the inventor of the calendar (White, 40). He had a great idea of stacking mastabas until they reached six tiers, a total of 60 meters high and its base 18 ...
    Related: egyptian, egyptian pyramids, great pyramid, pyramids, step pyramid
  • Egyptian Pyramids - 1,546 words
    Egyptian Pyramids The Egyptian pyramids have been the subjects of many outlandish claims and construction theories for centuries. The Great Pyramid for example has been associated with pyramid power, curses, Atlantis, the Bermuda Triangle, Biblical prophecy, Martian faces, advanced civilizations, space aliens, cavity resonators, and even levitation. It is not surprising that some that have proposed such theories have been dubbed pyramidiots. This paper will attempt to give a more logical solution to the methods ancient Egyptians may have had used, and the problems they may have had, using factual information, scientific evidence and a bit of common sense. It is time for a rational explanatio ...
    Related: egyptian, egyptian pyramids, great pyramid, pyramids, assembly line
  • Egyptian Religions - 1,063 words
    Egyptian Religions No other country- not even China or India had such a long history as Ancient Egypt. For nearly, 3,000 years before the birth of Jesus, the Egyptians had already a high developed civilization. The Egyptians lived in an orderly government; they built great stone structures; most of important of all they established an acquired religion. For the Egyptians there was no break between their religious beliefs and their daily life. Even their culture would all lie at the bottom compared to their religious beliefs. For an example, Egyptian art was never reflected as a representation; however, it was a sense of symbolic pictures that spoke of the life of the gods and the hope of ete ...
    Related: egyptian, egyptian art, egyptian book, daily life, ancient egyptians
  • Egyptian Religions - 1,079 words
    ... verything that surrounds them. Many of these ethical laws pertain to the work social and personal goals according to Truth. It was important for "N" to declare innocence because nothing evil shall happen to go against "N" because "N" has proven innocence. After the declaration of innocence it was vital for "N" to know the name of the Gods. It was important for the deceased to know these names because the Gods lived on Truth. "Hail to you, O you who are in the Hall of Justice who have no lies in your bodies, who live on truth and gulp down truth in the presence of Horus who is in his disc." Since the Gods lived on Truth it was up to the Gods to save and protect the soul of the deceased. T ...
    Related: egyptian, egyptian book, ancient egypt, good and evil, mention
  • Egyptian Religous Reforms - 1,306 words
    Egyptian Religous Reforms Early Egyptian Religious Beliefs and Akhenatens Reforms During the New Kingdom of Egypt (from 1552 through 1069 B.C.), there came a sweeping change in the religious structure of the ancient Egyptian civilization. The Hymn to the Aten was created by Amenhotep IV, who ruled from 1369 to 1353 B.C., and began a move toward a monotheist culture instead of the polytheist religion which Egypt had experienced for the many hundreds of years prior to the introduction of this new idea. There was much that was different from the old views in The Hymn to the Aten, and it offered a new outlook on the Egyptian ways of life by providing a complete break with the traditions which Eg ...
    Related: egyptian, egyptian art, egyptian civilization, egyptian culture, middle kingdom
  • Egyptian Religous Reforms - 1,377 words
    ... is name to, brought about many religious reforms. Amenhotep IV began a series of reforms to ensure the Pharaoh's status as a living god among the people, as opposed to a simple agent of the sun-god Amen-Re, as the priests of the royal court were beginning to assert a more powerful and independent role. Assisted by the royal family, Amenhotep IV commenced on a series of religious reforms, which would help him regain the power lost to the priests. He worshiped Aten, the radiant god of the sun disk. Why this particular god Aten was chosen may never be known, But Amenhotep IV apparently so inspired by his faith that he wrote The Hymn to the Aten in his praise. At first he tolerated worship o ...
    Related: egyptian, egyptian culture, moral philosophy, religion & politics, nile
  • Egyptian Temple - 284 words
    Egyptian Temple When talking about the basic type of Egyptian temple, it is all about heavy columns, walls, pylons, big courts, and the use of axis, symmetrically and made of stones or mud bricks. The plan of the Egyptian temple is rectangular, symmetrical and set on the longitudual axis approaching through courts and halls. Each court is being bigger than each one One of the famous Egyptian temple is the Temple of Queen Hatshepsut. It is built by her vizier Senenmut about 1478-1458 B.C. in the new kingdom period(1500-1145 B.C.). It is a funerary temple which is dedicated to Amun and other deities. The structure of this outstanding temple is quite different from the pyramids, a which is buil ...
    Related: egyptian, temple, step pyramid, massive, characteristic
  • Gothic Architecture Vs Egyptian Architecture - 883 words
    Gothic Architecture Vs. Egyptian Architecture Gothic Architecture Vs. Egyptian Architecture The sediment richens the soil year after year by the Nile that floods the valley and rises twenty to thirty feet high. African villagers expect the seasonal rains; the precipitation determines the crops productivity. The valley cut by this dominating river is also where one of the greatest Neolithic civilizations grew. The originals were of mixed races but all derived from the white races. By 4000 B.C. these egger people started using copper and gold, developing a standard way of living. They made tools to their own needs and began building and started to include architectural art full of decorous cur ...
    Related: architecture, egyptian, gothic, gothic architecture, modern europe
  • He Westward Spread Of Inca And Egyptian Culture - 1,271 words
    ... e Pacific that support the theory of contact between the peoples of the Polynesian islands and the Inca culture. Peruvians contend that a race from the North who lived on Lake Titicaca fled to the west on great rafts made of balsa. Their leader's name was Kon-Tiki (Kon-Tiki 19). Furthermore, the Polynesians contend that they are descendants of a group that had come across the sea from a land in the east which was scorched by the sun (Kon-Tiki 19). The leader of this legendary group- Tiki; who was said to be a direct scion of the sun god. It is said, Tiki, he was both god and chief. It was Tiki who brought my ancestors to these islands where we live now. Before that, we lived in a big cou ...
    Related: egyptian, egyptian culture, inca, westward, extra terrestrial
  • Mythology Burial Practices Of The Ancient Egyptian And Grecoroman Cultures Ancient Egyptian And Grecoroman Practices Of Prepa - 1,501 words
    Mythology Burial Practices of the Ancient Egyptian and Greco-Roman Cultures Ancient Egyptian and Greco-Roman practices of preparing the dead for the next cradle of humanity are very intriguing. These two cultures differ in a multitude of ways yet similarities can be noted in the domain of funerary services. In the realm of Egyptian afterlife, The Book of the Dead can provide one with vital information concerning ritual entombment practices and myths of the afterlife. The additional handouts I received from Timothy Stoker also proved to be useful in trying uncover vital information regarding the transition into another life. Regarding the burial practices of Greece and Rome, parts of Homer's ...
    Related: ancient civilizations, ancient egypt, burial, egyptian, mythology
  • Polemics On Veiling Egyptian Women In The Twentieth Century - 2,407 words
    Polemics On Veiling Egyptian Women In The Twentieth Century Introduction .. so much energy has been expended by Muslim men and then Muslim women to remove the veil and by others to affirm or restore it .. (Ahmed 167). This paper explores these efforts in two specific stages: the first and the last thirds of the twentieth century. Through an analysis of some of the various arguments on the veil, I will try to induce some general characteristics of the debate on the issue and on women during these two specific periods of time. The starting point will be Kasim Amin's Tahrir el Mara'a (Liberation of Woman) and the counter argument of Talat Harb's Tarbiet el Mara'a wal Hijab, (Educating Women and ...
    Related: egyptian, first women, keeping women, muslim women, twentieth, twentieth century
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