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Free research papers and essays on topics related to: economic reform

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  • Failure Of Economic Reform In Russia - 254 words
    Failure of Economic Reform in Russia Formerly the preeminent republic of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, Russia has been an independent nation since the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991. Because of its great size, its natural resources, and its political domination, the Russian Federation played a leading role in the economy of the Soviet Union. In the years preceding the disintegration of the union in 1991, the economy of Russia and the union as a whole was in decline. In 1992, immediately after the separation, the Russian government implemented a series of radical reforms. Price controls were abolished as the beginning of a transition from a centrally controlled economy to ...
    Related: economic growth, economic reform, reform, russia, boris yeltsin
  • A Critique Of Philosophical Approaches To Criminal Justice Reform - 1,000 words
    A Critique Of Philosophical Approaches To Criminal Justice Reform People are arrested every day in the United States. They are put on probation or sent to jail, and sometimes they are let out on parole; there are millions of people affected. In 1995 alone there were over five million people under some form of correctional supervision, and the number is steadily increasing. The incarceration rate is skyrocketing: the number of prison inmates per 100,000 people has risen from 139 in 1980 to 411 in 1995. This is an immense financial burden on the country. Federal expenditure for correctional institutions alone increased 248% from 1982 to 1992. Obviously something has to be changed in the justic ...
    Related: approaches, criminal, criminal activity, criminal acts, criminal behavior, criminal justice, criminal mind
  • Analysis On Bulgaria - 4,272 words
    Analysis On Bulgaria External historical events often changed Bulgaria's national boundaries in its first century of existence, natural terrain features defined most boundaries after 1944, and no significant group of people suffered serious economic hardship because of border delineation. Postwar Bulgaria contained a large percentage of the ethnic Bulgarian people, although numerous migrations into and out of Bulgaria occurred at various times. None of the country's borders was officially disputed in 1991, although nationalist Bulgarians continued to claim that Bulgaria's share of Macedonia--which it shared with both Yugoslavia and Greece--was less than just because of the ethnic connection ...
    Related: bulgaria, district court, separation of church and state, public transportation, music
  • Brazilian Economy - 1,016 words
    ... mption, although this will lag behind the other drivers of growth. Industrial production grew in February for the fifth time in seven months, the first time Brazil has posted such a broad expansion since late 1997 (LaitnFocus) Public debt growth accelerated after mid-1995 due to the need to stabilize short-term capital inflows drawn by high domestic interest rates. This policy together with the need to extend central bank credit to the financial sector to help troubled banks has also led to a growing quasi-fiscal deficit. The Real's value has held well below its weakest point early in 1999 (around R2: $1), ending 1999 at R1.79: $1. Although debt repayments are forecast to be higher in th ...
    Related: brazilian, brazilian economy, economy, open economy, world economy
  • Canadas Geopolitical Role In The Future - 832 words
    Canada's Geopolitical Role In The Future Canada is currently sitting in an economic catastrophe, our unemployment is high, production low, and our deficit is increasing at a rapid pace. We are one of the few first world countries, and we need to strengthen our economy. Once we fortify our economy, our geopolitical role will increase. Geopolitics is defined as the study of a two-way relationship between political beliefs and actions on one side and any of the usual concerns of geography on the other. As we move into the future, our geopolitical role may be broken down into many groups. As we can tackle the burden alone, we must join forces, and increase our geopolitical role. As we administer ...
    Related: geopolitical, world wide, birth control, world countries, management
  • Cats Cradle - 934 words
    Cat's Cradle Cat's Cradle is, Vonnegut's most highly praised novels. Filled with humor and unforgettable characters, this apocalyptic story tells of Earth's ultimate end, and presents a vision of the future that is both darkly fantastic and funny, as Vonnegut weaves a satirical commentary on modern man and his madness (Barnes and Noble n.pag). In Cat's Cradle, Kurt Vonnegut uses satire as a vehicle for threatened self-destruction when he designs the government of San Lorenzo. In addition, the Bokonists practice of Boko-maru, and if the world is going to end in total self destruction and ruin, then people will die, no matter how good people are and what religion people believe. An example of ...
    Related: cats, cradle, economic reform, good people, unsuccessful
  • Cats Cradle - 930 words
    Cat's Cradle Cat's Cradle is, "Vonnegut's most highly praised novels. Filled with humor and unforgettable characters, this apocalyptic story tells of Earth's ultimate end, and presents a vision of the future that is both darkly fantastic and funny, as Vonnegut weaves a satirical commentary on modern man and his madness" (Barnes and Noble n.pag). In Cat's Cradle, Kurt Vonnegut uses satire as a vehicle for threatened self-destruction when he designs the government of San Lorenzo. In addition, the Bokonists practice of Boko-maru, and if the world is going to end in total self destruction and ruin, then people will die, no matter how good people are and what religion people believe. An example o ...
    Related: cats, cradle, world affairs, economic reform, placing
  • China Economic Growth - 2,074 words
    China Economic Growth Two years after the death of Mao Zedong in 1976, it became apparent to many of China's leaders that economic reform was necessary. During his tenure as China's premier, Mao had encouraged social movements such as the Great Leap Forward and the Cultural Revolution, which had as their bases ideologies such as serving the people and maintaining the class struggle. By 1978 "Chinese leaders were searching for a solution to serious economic problems produced by Hua Guofeng, the man who had succeeded Mao Zedong as CCP leader after Mao's death" (Shirk 35). Hua had demonstrated a desire to continue the ideologically based movements of Mao. Unfortunately, these movements had left ...
    Related: china, chinese economic, economic crisis, economic development, economic growth, economic performance, economic reform
  • Chinas Economics - 2,814 words
    Chinas Economics For various reasons, China has always been an important country in the world. With its increasing large population, it was determined by other countries that is has a lot of economic potentials. In just one decade and a half, China has transformed itself from a giant that use to live in poverty into a wealthy powerhouse to the world economy. With one-fifth of the worlds population, China is now producing 4% of world merchandise and a proportion of global production. It has also one of the worlds oldest and most influential civilizations. China has established three approaches to the world economy and they are establishing an alternative socialist system (1950s); isolating it ...
    Related: economic activity, economic freedom, economic growth, economic outlook, economic reform, economic stability, economic system
  • Chinese Democracy Movements - 2,363 words
    Chinese Democracy Movements In 1978, stimulated by the opening of China to the West and also by the "reversal of verdicts" against the 1976 Tiananmen protesters (These demonstrations against the gang of four had been condemned as counter-revolutionary at the time but were now declared a revolutionary act), thousands of Chinese began to put their thoughts into words, their words onto paper and their paper onto walls to be read by passers by. The most famous focus of these displays became a stretch of blank wall just to the west of the former forbidden city in Beijing, part of which was now a museum and park and part the cluster of residences for China's most senior National leaders. Because o ...
    Related: chinese, chinese people, chinese revolution, democracy, science and technology
  • Chinese Economy - 956 words
    Chinese Economy If China's economy grows as fast for the next 20 years as it has for the past 14, it will be the biggest economy on earth: I feel that China's drastic improvements over the last 14 years are overwhelming, with their Real GNP growing at a rate of 9% a year, which means by, 1994, China's economy will match the performance of countries like Japan and Taiwan. China's standard of living has also increased, and the number of people who were considered absolutely poor decreased approximately 63%. I feel with the vast amount of people living in China, and the economic activity booming like it is, China's exports will continue to grow, as well as the standard of living. This will crea ...
    Related: chinese, chinese economy, economy, market economy, communist party
  • Communism East Europe - 2,955 words
    ... a contributing factor to the collapse of communism in Eastern Europe. If a party has not got the support of a majority, then it has a weak political basis. The fact that undemocratic means were used to ensure that the communists came to, and then maintained, power shows that communism was a political failure. Throughout the history of communism in Russia, never once did the party gain a majority support or truly succeed in suppressing public demonstrations of antipathy towards communism. It can therefore be argued that a political leadership with no political basis or support could ever hope to survive. Another important factor to note is communisms utter failure in relation to society a ...
    Related: century europe, communism, east europe, east european, east german, east germany, eastern europe
  • Communism History - 1,343 words
    ... s, icy rivers, swampy marshes, and Kuomintang forces would leave only a handful alive at the end. The Long March had begun. It would end in 1949, the same time the Peoples Republic of China was formed. Mao had come out on top through extraordinary means. However, the civil war was not quite over. While living in Taiwan, Chiang was still getting backing from the United States and again took the title of President in 1950. Mao recognized, however, that he would need to set up a government immediately in order to support the close to a billion people living in China. He then turned to the Soviet Union for financial help. Mao went on to create the Great Cultural Revolution: an effort to get ...
    Related: communism, history, soviet socialist, world power, china
  • Communist China - 1,265 words
    ... were taken to regulate their army, the Peoples Liberation Army (PLA), as they returned from Korea. When Mao died in September 1976 (Zheng, Party vs. State in Post-1949 China, 161) his revolutionary ideas died with him. At the next National Peoples Congress meeting, the nation was called to achieve four modernizations in agriculture, industry, national defense, and science and technology. (Metzler, Divided Dynamism, 161.) The modernization program gained momentum after Deng Xiaoping managed to return to power. The Congress decided to change its priority of the Party from political campaigns to economic development. Leaders devoted tremendous attention to reestablishing a legal system. La ...
    Related: china, china relations, communist, communist china, communist party
  • Confucianism And Its Implications In Modern China - 1,847 words
    Confucianism And It's Implications In Modern China Confucianism is a time enduring philosophy that has stood up to invading clans, war, resentment, enforcement and infringement of new philosophies, and eventually, revival. For almost 80years, up until the late 1970's, Confucianism and its ideas and values have been all but wiped away from China. Though effort was made to remove Confucianism for good from China by the Communist leader Mao Zedong in 1949, the ideas and values were so deeply embedded into peoples mind and the culture that even suppression could not keep it out of the culture and practices. The main factor that has brought Confucianism back into the limelight in China and other ...
    Related: china, confucianism, imperial china, mainland china, modern china, modern society
  • Contemporary China - 1,276 words
    Contemporary China Contemporary China The Republic of China has undergone many dramatic changes within a relatively short period of time. After centuries operating in the relative stability of Confucian ideals and tradition, Chinese society has been bombarded by the inflow of western ideals and commercialism. In his book Streetlife China, Michael Dutton makes observations concerning contemporary Chinese society and discusses the problems and advantages rapid economic development has brought upon China. Dutton's view on contemporary China is that of a society whose historical ideology contradicts the product of a capitalistic society. Dutton believes that Chinese society is conflicted between ...
    Related: china, contemporary, contemporary chinese, chinese society, foreign trade
  • Cuban History - 1,431 words
    Cuban History History of Cuba Christopher Columbus landed on the island of Cuba on October 28, 1492, during his initial westward voyage. In honor of the daughter of Ferdinand V and Isabella I of Spain, his benefactors, Columbus named it Juana, the first of several names he successively applied to the island. It eventually became known as Cuba, from its aboriginal name, Cubanascnan. Colonization by Spain When Columbus first landed on Cuba it was inhabited by the Ciboney, a friendly tribe related to the Arawak. Colonization of the island began in 1511, when the Spanish soldier Diego Velzquez established the town of Baracoa. Velzquez subsequently founded several other settlements, including San ...
    Related: cuban, cuban government, cuban revolution, history, liberal party
  • Cubas Politics - 1,637 words
    ... ucation, jobs, health care, and equality for Cubans large lower class, many of whom are of African descent. They appreciated it then, and some still support Castro now. With the sudden end of Soviet subsidies (estimated at $5 billion a year), Cuban living conditions went from bad to worse. From 1990 to 1993, Cubas GDP declined by forty percent. Many Cubans went hungry. Castro, reading the desperate mood of the masses, discovered his approaching obsolescence and gave indications that he might reform. The Cuban people, yearning for reform, began to hope for a new day.17 It is evident that the political disposition of the country, as in most countries, has been influenced by its economic st ...
    Related: communications technology, prentice hall, economic status, manpower, potentially
  • Economic Transition In Poland Russia - 1,160 words
    ECONOMIC TRANSITION IN POLAND & RUSSIA Since approximately 1988, Poland and the republic of Russia (formerly Soviet Union) have gone through major economic reform. The main emphasis of this paper is to identify the different approaches that the governments in these two countries have taken and to look at the positive and negative effects that these drastic changes have had on their economies. Specifically, the question asked in this paper is, "Why has the economic transition in Poland been more successful than in Russia? We will be looking at what factors are being used to measure this success and what their prospects are for the future. With almost half of the world stayed under the communi ...
    Related: economic growth, economic reform, poland, russia, transition
  • Fdr - 284 words
    Fdr Franklin Delano Roosevelt, (1882-1945), 32nd President of the United States of the United States. Roosevelt became president in March 1933 at the depth of the Great Depression, was reelected for an unprecedented three more terms, and died in office in April 1945, less than a month before the surrender of Germany in World War II. Despite an attack of poliomyelitis, which paralyzed his legs in 1921, he was a charismatic optimist whose confidence helped sustain the American people during the strains of economic crisis and world war. He was one of America's most controversial leaders. Conservatives claimed that he undermined states' rights and individual liberty. Leftists found him timid and ...
    Related: american people, economic crisis, franklin delano roosevelt, administration
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