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Research paper example essay prompt: Diabetes - 1242 words
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.. breathing your sugar is very high, over 400. If you have no energy, feel groggy and tired your blood sugar is most likely between 200-400. From 80-200 you should be fine and have no abnormal feelings. When you experience extreme hunger, sweating or shakiness you probably have a low blood sugar, between 20-60. Blood sugar ideally should be tested 4 to 6 times daily, before meals and approximately two hours after.
This will allow you to see the whole pattern of how your body responds to diet, exercise, and insulin. A broader, more long ranged, blood sugar test is the Hemoglobin A1c. Hemoglobin is the protein in the red blood cells that carries oxygen to various parts of the body. If the blood sugar is high, sugar attaches to the hemoglobin and remains there for the life of the red blood cell (2 to 3 months). They call hemoglobin with sugar-attached hemoglobin A1c, thus reflecting how often blood sugars have been high for the past 2 to 3 months. Normal values of hemoglobin A1c for a non-diabetic person are 4 to 6 %, while an acceptable level for a diabetic would be anything below 10.4 %.
Before insulin was developed in 1921, there was little hope for people with Type I Diabetes. Most insulin used today is genetically engineered replacing the old purified pork insulin. There are two major types of insulin, short acting regular and long acting NPH. Regular insulin begins to act within a half hour after being injected. It has a peak effect 1 to 4 hours after the injection and lasts up to 6 hours.
NPH, neutral protamine hagedorn, insulin is made with a protein that allows it to be used slowly. NPH has its peak activity 6 to 12 hours after injection, and is usually gone in 18 to 24 hours. Most people take two injections of insulin per day, a half hour before breakfast and dinner. The time between the injection and the eating of the meal can be varied according to the pre-meal blood sugar test results. Insulin can be adjusted to how hungry you are or the kind Of food being eaten (Foods high in sugar and carbohydrates require more insulin to break down).
Another insulin therapy is to only take shots of regular insulin to cover what you eat. This will result in tighter blood sugar control if done correctly, but can be inconvenient and bothersome because at least four injections would have to be administered daily. Type II diabetics do not need injections of insulin. Type II diabetics can control their blood sugars by taking oral hypoglycemic which helps the pancreas to make more insulin. Diet also plays a big role in the health of many diabetics.
More than half of adult diabetics manage their diabetes with diet rather than insulin or oral hypoglycemic agents. Carbohydrates are an important part of a diabetic's diet. There are two types of carbohydrates, simple and complex. Simple carbohydrates include sugar, candies, pastries and cakes, which usually raise blood sugar levels very rapidly. Complex carbohydrates include vegetables, dried beans and peas, grains breads and cereals that raise your blood sugar level gradually over a long period of time. Complex carbohydrates also contain more nutrients minerals and fiber than do simple carbohydrates, but simple carbohydrates can give blood sugar a quick lift to stave off the affects of a low blood sugar.
Diabetics must also limit their intake of cholesterol, fat, and salt. These foods are all linked to heart disease. This may mean the cutting out or limiting the consumption of eggs, dairy foods and red meat. Special consideration must be given to planning medications, mealtimes and exercise so that wide swings in blood sugar levels are avoided. An insulin dependent diabetic should plan to eat foods high in carbohydrates at a time that coincides with the peak effectiveness of their insulin. The one factor that has countless significant positive effects on the health of diabetics is exercise. Exercise causes the muscles and other tissues to need more calories, especially sugar, in order to do their work. Glucose, sugar, is the body's main source of energy.
It is stored in the liver and muscles as glycogen, which is quickly exhausted during exercise. Muscles then absorb glucose from the blood stream thus lowering blood sugar levels. Exercise lowers blood sugar by increasing the number of special carrier proteins in the cell membrane that regulate the movement of glucose from the blood into the muscle. It makes these cells more receptive to insulin raising the body's insulin sensitivity, which allows the person to decrease the amount of insulin they are taking. Sometimes blood sugar can be lowered for hour's even days after just one strenuous exercise session. In non-diabetic people, their blood insulin level drops during exercise. Less insulin means that low blood sugar will not occur to deprive the brain of its thinking capacity and the muscles of their maximum potential use.
With low insulin levels, not as much sugar goes into some cells and the liver makes more sugar for immediate use instead of storing it. In insulin dependent diabetics the body does not as perfectly adjust the blood sugar level. The blood insulin level may drop down because the insulin level is not determined by secretion from the pancreas but the amount, type, and rate at which the insulin is absorbed. Diabetics must reduce the amount of insulin taken if they are planning to exercise to avoid a low blood sugar. Out of control diabetics, with blood sugars ranging from 200 to 250, should not exercise, because short bursts of intense exercise may actually raise their blood sugar. Exercise is also very helpful in a diabetics' weight control.
Excess weight can cause the insulin carrier cells from doing their job, which will result in high blood sugars. Also most overweight people have high cholesterol, blood pressure, and triglycerides that lead to heart disease. In the case of Type II diabetes exercise and weight loss are key. Many patients reduce or even discontinue medication all together. Because of the exercise, the little amount of insulin their pancreas does make is enough to keep them at a normal blood sugar level.
And since obesity is an element in the cause of Type II diabetes exercise is actually a form of prevention. At the University of California at Berkley researchers found that for every 500 cal you burn a week in activity your risk of diabetes drops 6 %. Physical benefits aside, diabetes is a complex and frustrating chronic illness. It takes a great deal of time and energy to manage, and can leave a victim feeling run-down, helpless or depressed. The psychological benefits of exercise cannot be understated the sense of energy, control, and accomplishment that exercise provides can really make a difference in a persons quality of life. Researchers are learning more and more every day about the causes of diabetes and looking for ways to prevent the disease or its complications. While still other research is aimed at perfecting methods of administering insulin and monitoring blood sugar levels.
Immune suppressing drugs are being studied as one way to stop the immune system from attacking beta cells, which would prevent diabetes. Also the transplantation of a whole pancreas or just beta cells to make insulin has a promising future. But until they find a miracle cure or perfect the transplants, millions of people can still control their diabetes, hassle and pain free, by just exercising, eating a healthy diet, and keeping up with their medication therapy. Health Care.
Research paper topics, free essay prompts, sample research papers on Diabetes