Research paper topics, free example research papers

You are welcome to search thousands of free research papers and essays. Search for your research paper topic now!

Research paper example essay prompt: Chemistry Research - 2121 words

NOTE: The samle research paper or essay prompt you see on this page is a free essay, available to anyone. You can use any paper as a sample on how to write research paper, essay prompts or as a source of information. We strongly discourage you to directly copy/paste any essay and turn it in for credit. If your school uses any plagiarism detecting software, you might be caught and accused of plagiarism. If you need a custom essay or research paper, written from scratch exclusively for you, please use our paid research paper writing service!

Chemistry Research CHAPTER 32 The tallest tree is the Redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) approx 110 m The tallest Angiosperm is the Australian Eucalyptus regnans Water Uptake and transport (Fig. 32.1) = water is essential because: transport solute, cool the body, photosynthesis and Turgor pressure Osmosis- movement of H2) through a semi-impermeable membrane Osmotic potential ( o)-depend on dissolve solute: Hi concentration means more negative o. Isoosmotic-two solution with same o; Hypoosmotic- solution that has a less negative o(more +) Turgor Pressure -hydraulic pressure result from water up take, cell turgid; analog to air pressure in a tire Water Potential ( )-Overall tendency of a solution or cell to take up water from pure water solution. = o + P, P is positive and is measured in MegaPascal (MPa); loss in P means the plant will wilt. MINERAL UPTAKE = Mineral and ions transported across membranes by protein: Pumps and Ion channel & Symport = Use both Facilitated (low K outside cell) and Active transport (depend on Respiration). = Plant do not have a Na/K pump but a H pump (generate membrane potential/ gradient). = Ion transport changes Electric potential of membrane (-120mV- can be measure by electrodes) = The traffic of ions into/out of cell can be measure by Patch clamping technique.

Apoplast & Symplast = Water moves into the Stele (more - ) from the cortex (less - ) from the soil (more less - ) = Mineral move by Mass flow or diffusion/Active transport (via Membrane Protein) Apoplast-movement through cell wall and intercellular space; it is continuous Symplast- movement through the cell and b/w cell via plasmodesmata; continuous but regulated = H2O from the Apoplast stops at the Endodermis (Stele); have Casparian strips -made of suberin = Strip separate Apoplast of the cortex from the Apoplast of the stele (periclcle) = Membrane protein enable enables selective mineral uptake and uptake rate. Transfer cells -in pericycle, transport minerals from cytoplasm back into the apoplast (MP/Mit, SA, rate) TRANSPORT IN XYLEM Model 1-pumping cells stem; ruled out by Eduard Strasburger exp-use poison pitric acid; Stop in the leaf = Exp. demonstrate: (1) pumping cell not responsible for uptake (2) leaves important (3) root not involve Model 2- Capillary action ruled out because capillary action cannot support 110 m tree (40 cm) Model 3- root pressure-based on more - in xylem & less neg in root; support by guttation Guttation- the removal of H2O through the leaves under high humidity and a abundance of H2O in the soil = The Oozing of sap from a cut stem of Coleus when the top is remove; not enough = Root pressure changes, it either weaker or stronger but will not exceed 2X atm pressure Evaporation-Cohesion-Tension mechanism (Fig. 32.8) (1)Evaporation of H2O through stomata-increase tension &make wall more - o; H2O enter nearest vein (2) Removal of H2O from leaf cause pull of water below; pull is send through the whole column (3) Column is maintain by the adhesion of water to the cell wall (glass) Summary-evaporation account for xylem transport & the resulting tension cause the cohesion Dry Air-more - o than root--less neg than sap in xylem which is less neg in leaf--less than air = Minerals dissolve in sap is transported to rest of the plant body by the phloem Evaporation-Cohesion-Tension mechanism -requires tension in column or solution of the xylem = Pressure can be measure by pressure bomb; done by Per Scholander, Fig 32.9 = In vines there is no tension in xylem until the leaves are removed; some Plants loss tension at night TRANSPIRATION THROUGH THE STOMATA Transpiration- is the loss of water from shoot (leaf) by evaporation; also cools the cell = Loss is minimize by the cuticle; impermeable to CO2 Stoma- composed of specialized guard cells in the epidermis which allow passage of H2O/CO2 = In monocot it is associated with specialized epidermal cells; but mechanism is the same in dicot = Open by pumping of K into guard cells; stretching is regulated by Microfibril = Pumping also allow for Cl & other organic ion uptake; maintain electrical balance or neutrality = Increase CO2 level in spaces of leaf and - (release of ABA); blue light also reduce H pumping CAM-succulent plants-Crassulaceae-such as Kalonchoe = Have a backward stomata cycle- opens at night; leaf tissue becomes acidic (Malic/Aspartic acid = Adapted for environment devoid of water; loss of H2O occurs in cool environment. TRANSLOCATION = Occur in the Phloem- transport sugars, aa, minerals from leaf to root Model: bi-directional, up and down the stem or petioles (2) Arrest if tissue is damage by heating (3) Inhibited by compound that inhibit cellular respiration Pressure Flow Model- fig. 32.14-32.16 = Involve active transport of sugar into sieve tube at source (leaf) and removal at sink (stem/root) = Sieve tubes at source cause increase in Turgor pressure; fluid is squeeze toward the Sink ends Sieve Plates- must be unclogged: it is regulated by protein which is randomly distributed (until cut) = Sugars pass from cell to cell via symport, then into the apoplast (active); likewise into sieve tube = Apoplast selectively sort out which compound is to be translocated; Sym-Apo-Sym not universal = Sucrose is transported via secondary transport through a symport protein (H/Sugar protein) = In sink sugar are actively unloaded-maintain gradient and P in tube; Also build up sugar in seed/fruits = In some plants, Maple, sugar is stored as starch in xylem(living) of trunk/twigs; digested in spring (syrup) CHAPTER 37 Need of one versus the many Sponges- compose of group of cell in direct contact w/ environment; function independently = get nutrients from seawater; only two layers thick Multi-cellular organism- creates internal environment made of varying extracellular matrix = Cell meet need & exchange w/ internal environment (IE)function independently thereof = Allow animal to occupy various habitat; Cell become specialized and efficient due to constant internal envment = Cell become arrange in tissue system which maintain internal Environment & perform certain task = Evolution of animal physiology maintain progress of cell-tissue-organs-organ system-maintain IE. HOMEOSTASIS- maintenance of a constant composition of the IE-regardless of it continual/variable. = Enable organism to function and adapt; It is under control and regulation in response to IE/EE.

= Control and regulation requires information-Endocrine and Nervous system. Organ & organ system- many types Organ- group of tissue compose of cell with similar structure and biological function; 4 cell types = Epithelial, connective, muscles and nervous Epithelial-sheet of cell of intestine, skin and lungs; some have secretory function = mucous, digestive enzymes and sweat; some are ciliated- Olfactory system and fallopian tubes = some involve in absorption and transport; some are stratified (skin) or single layered-GUT Connective tissue- support and to reinforce other tissue . = Cell are embedded in extracellular matrix; Include ligament and tendons; lens of the eye; surround Gut = Include the Skin contain elastrin protein but degrades with age; Bones-is a dense connective tissue = Include Adipose tissue- fat cells and the Component of blood Muscle tissue- include cells that cause movement of organs and limb; 3 types Skeletal-connects bone to bone; under Somatic NS control-responsible for behavior. Smooth muscles- found in internal organ (stomach); involve in the constriction of blood vessel Cardiac muscles -make up heart and pump blood Nervous tissue -enable animal to deal w/info; 2 basic cell type Neurons-generate electrochemical signals; response to specific stimuli; = Communicate over long distances with other neurons/muscles/secretory cell; control activity of most organ Glial cell -support function of neurons; abundant in brain NERVOUS AND ENDOCRINE SYSTEM Nervous-process info and use the info to control physiology and behavior = Brain, Spinal cord and peripheral nerves-conduct signal from sensor to CNS; CNS to effector = Sensors- eye, ears, organ of taste and smell, organ of balance and orientation, touch; pain/temp/Pressure Endocrine system -process info and control function of organs via extracellular fluid (hormones) = Ductless glands-secretes hormone in blood; pancreas secretes insulin = There is a close interaction b/w NS and ES; cell in brain produce hormone that effect ES and vice versa = Messenger of ES or Endocrine Glands travels great distance to stimulate target cells SKIN, SKELETON AND MUSCLE SYSTEM Skin- the 1st line of defense against pathogens, loss of water; It's the largest organ = It a major sense organs-control rate of heat exchange (neurons); regulate body temperature. Skeleton system -support and protection; also an effector ; support lever system for movement.

Muscle system -include muscles under conscious (skeletal) & unconscious control & cardiac muscles REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM Gonads- male/female reproductive organs; include the testes/ovaries; they produce gametes = include organ that deliver the organs; uterus-support the embryo = Mammary glands-provides nutrient for infants(breast); Gonads- contain hormone producing tissues. DIGESTIVE SYSTEM -extend from mouth to anus. = It's a continuous tubular structure--include the Gut; Gut is divided in different segment so differ function = Involve in digestion of food and absorption of nutrients; Glands-deliver digestive enzyme to the Gut = The lower Gut (intestine) reabsorb H2O from waste; Stores waste and eliminate them. GAS EXCHANGE SYSTEM -Trachea, Larynx, diaphragm = Also called respiratory system--provide O2 and eliminate CO2 = Lung- consist of many airways leading to membranous sac with large SA; the alveoli = Diaphragm is a muscle and delivers air into and out of lungs CIRCULATORY SYSTEM = Transport O2 from lungs to rest of body and CO2 from tissue to the lungs = Transport nutrients from gut, deliver waste (N2 ) to excretory system; regulate by hormones & remove heat Blood contain a liquid medium the Plasma-is continuous with the extracellular fluids LYMPHATIC SYSTEM = Consist of vesicles extending through the body; do not include the heart and is not a circulatory system = Provide the extracellular fluid to circulatory system; include the immune system = Contain specialized blood cell produce in the spleen, lymphatic nodes, thymus and bone marrow EXCRETORY SYSTEM Urine-contain salt and waste product from catabolism of Amino acids and NA = Include the Kidney-control water content of body and correct salt composition of extracellular fluid =Bladder- storage of urine; Ureter- tube b/w kidney & bladder; Urethra-opening that release urine; = Skin- excrete H2O and salt. Excretory system: also include the end of the digestive tract CONTROL OF REGULATION Homeostasis- depend on control/regulation of organs; organ system- depend on the need of cell of body Control-implies change in rate of a process; Regulation-a physiological concept-refer to maintain to a certain limit Regulation- requires the ability to obtain and use information. = Physiological regulation requires feedback from control system = AND how the information is obtain, process, integrate & converted by the regulatory system.

To analyze a regulatory system requires US to identify the source of feedback. TEMPERATURE ANALOGY Thermostat-heating-cooling system is a regulatory system; furnace/ air condition is the control system Sensors- provide the negative feedback; positive feedback amplifies an already existing response (ethylene) Feed forward information- changes the set point; it adds a clock TEMPERATURE AND LIFE = All living cell function between - 0 C and 45 C; = Chemical reaction are temperature sensitive; measure in terms of Q10 =RT/ RT-10;Q10 =1 not sensitive = Q10 can be measure for single reaction or complex physiological process (O2 consumption) = Biological process is between 2 to 3; Temperature change can be detrimental to animal ANIMAL SENSITIVITY = Some animal BT is coupled to it external temperature. Acclimalization- a physiological& biological change that animal undergo in response to seasonal change in climate = Fish-temp difference is always higher if remove from pond to lab and then to pond Metabolic compensation-readjustment of biochemical mechanism to counter effect of temp due to Acclimalization = It is not sensitive to seasonal changes but to short term fluctuation (lysozymes-diff temp same function) MAINTAINING OPTIMAL BT Homeotherms-animal that regulates Bt at constant levels Poikiltherms-animals whose temperature changes Heterotherms-Animal that regulates it's BT at constant level some of the time Ectotherms-depend on external source of heat to maintain BT above ET Endotherms-regulate BT by producing heat metabolically or by metabolizing active mechanism of heat loss ENDODERMS VS ECTODERMS = Ectoderms cannot regulates it BT independently of it environment; BT will not drop below ambient temp = Endotherms regulates it Bt by altering it's rate of metabolic heat loss = Endotherms also have behavioral themoregulation; Ex. Nest construction/huddling; widespread in Animals = Both can alter their rate of heat exchange b/w blood and environment-control the flow of blood to skin Ex, Iguana of Galopagus- control BT by blood flow to skin; slower heart rate; these are adaptive process. = Some Ectoderms must maintain a certain temp at specific parts of it body (flight muscle, beetles, honeybee, shark) THERMOREGUALTION IN ENDOTHERMS -Fig 37.13b, 37.14 Thermoneutral zone -narrow range of temp in which metabolic rate of Endotherms is temp independent Basal metabolic rate- is temp of metabolic rate of an animal resting in a thermoneutral zone ( no digestion/reprod) = 6X the rate of an Ectotherms of same size; Endotherms have leaker cells-expend E for Na/K-increase rate Thermoneutral zone Low zone-high rate to maintain BT due to heat loss; At maximum rate BT decline (dies).

At high extreme-expand heat to cool the body (pants/sweat); at maximum rate/High temp- BT increases (dies) Methods- mammals-either shiver or sweat; birds-shiver (skeletal muscle ATP--heat) = Brown fats--Non-shiveri ...

Related: chemistry, respiratory system, nervous system, endocrine system, poison

Research paper topics, free essay prompts, sample research papers on Chemistry Research