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Research paper example essay prompt: Cannabis Hemp Marijuana - 2262 words
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Cannabis Hemp. . .Marijuana! Article copied work for work from April 1990 Issue of High Times Magazine pages 37-41 and page 57. "OUR CHALLENGE TO THE WORLD: TRY TO PROVE US WRONG-- If all fossil fuels and their derivatives (coal, oil, natural gas, synthetic fibers and petrochemicals) as well as the deforestation of trees for paper and agriculture (e.g., Brazilian & Indonesian rainforests), are banned from use in order to save the planet, preserve the ozone layer and reverse the greenhouse effect with its global warming trend: Then there is only one known renewable natural resource able to provide all(underlined) of the following goods and essentials such as paper and textiles; meet all of the world's transportation, home and industrial energy needs, and clean the atmosphere-- all at the same time--our old standby that did it all before: Cannabis Hemp. .
.Marijuana! The industrial revolution moved hemp to a place of lesser importance in world commerce due to the lack of mechanized harvesting and breaking technology needed for mass production. But this natural resource was far too valuable to be relegated to the back burner of history forever. In 1916, a U.S. Department of Agriculture bulletin predicted that once a docortication and harvesting machine was developed, cannabis would again become America's largest agricultural industry. Some 22 years later, Popular Mechanics introduced a new generation of investors to just such a device, (See the February 1989 issue of HIGH TIMES.) which brings us to this next bit of history: A PLAN TO SAVE OUR FOREST Some canniabis plant strains regularly reach treelike heights of 20 feet or more in one growing season.
In 1916, the U.S. Department of Agriculture wrote in special bulletin No. 404 that one acre of cannabis hemp, in annual rotation over a 20-year period, would produce as much pulp for paper as 4.1 acres of trees over the same 20- year period being cut down; and this process would use only 1/5 to 1/7 as much sulfur-based acid chemicals to break down the glue-like lignin that binds with the fibers of the pulp. All this lignin must be broken down to make pulp paper. Hemp is only 4% lignin, while trees are 18-30% lignin. Thus hemp provides four times as much pulp with five to seven times less pollution (and yet, today is totally illegal, as it has been for the last half-century).
This hemp pulp-paper potential depended on the invention and engineering of new machines for stripping the hemp by modern technology. This would also lower the cost of and demand for lumber for housing and at the same time help re-oxygenate the planet. As an example: If the new (1916) hemp pulp paper process were legal today, it would soon replace about 70% of all wood pulp paper, including computer printout paper, corrugated boxes and paper bags. Pulp paper made from rags or machined from 60% to 100% hemp hurds is stronger and more flexible than paper made from wood pulp and makes a less expensive, more ecological paper, and a better one. CONSERVATION & SOURCE REDUCTION Source reduction is a cost-cutting waste control method often called for by environmentalists: reduction of the source of pollution, usually from manufacturing with petrochemicals or their derivatives. In the supermarket when you are asked to choose paper or plastic for your bags, you are faced with an environmental dilemma; paper from trees that were cut, or plastic bags made from fossil fuel and chemicals.
With a third choice--hemp hurd paper--available, one could choose a biodegradable, durable paper from an annually renuewable source, the hemp plant. The goal is to reduce the source of pollution. Whether the source of the pollution is CFC's (chloro-flourocarbons) from spray cans, computers and refrigeration, or tritium and plutonium produced for military uses, or the sulfuric acids used by papermakers, reducing the source of pollution is the goal. The environmental advantages of harvesting hemp annually--leaving the trees in the ground!--make papermaking from hemp hurds critical for source reduction, along with the use of hemp to replace fossil fuel as an energy source. ENERGY AND THE ECONOMY The book Solar Gas (1980), Science Digest, Omni Magazine, The Alliance for Survival, the "Green Party" of West Germany and others put the total figure of our energy costs at 80% of the total dollar expenses of living for each human being.
In validation: 82% of the total value of all issues traded on the New York Stock Exchange, other world stock exchanges, ect., are tied directly to: *Energy supply companies (Exxon, Shell, etc.) wells/coal mines (Con Edison, and so forth); *Energy transportation (pipeline companies, oil shipping and delivery companies) or; *Refineries and retail sales(Exxon, Mobile, Shell, So. Calif. Edison, NY Edison, et al.) Americans--5% of world population--in their drive for more 'net worth' and 'productivity' use 25% to 40% of the worlds' energy. The hidden cost to the environment cannot be measured. Eighty-two percent of all your dollars translates roughly into 33 of every 40 hours you work going to pay for the ultimate energy cost in the goods and services, one way or another (transportation, heating, cooking, lighting) you purchase. Our current fossil energy sources also supply about 80% of all solid and airborne pollution which is slowly poisoning the planet.
(See U.S. EPA report 1983-89 on coming world catastrophe from carbon dioxide imbalance caused by burning fossil fuels). The cheapest substitute for these expensive and wasteful energy methods is not wind or solar panels, nuclear, geothermal, and the like, but using the evenly distributed light of the sun to grow biomass. The world's most efficient solar power source has already been created. It is a plant.
And on a global scale, the most energy efficient plant is hemp, an annually renewable resource able to replace all fossil fuels. The early Oil Barons (Rockefeller, Standard; Rothschild's Shell; et al) paranoically aware in the Twenties of the possibilities of Ford's methanol scheme (Henry Ford even grew marijuana on his estate after 1937 to prove the cheapness of methanol), dropped and kept oil prices incredibly low, between $1 to $4 per barrel (there are 42 gallons in an oil barrel) for almost 50 years until 1970. So low, in fact, that no other energy source could compete with them. . .
and once they were sure of the lack of competition, the price jumped to almost $40 per barrel in the next ten years. Suddenly, for whatever reason, we are now in an era when oil is not only prohibitively expensive, but embargoes or wars by foreign nations, i.e., OPEC, Libya, Iran, etc., can virtually hold the U.S. hostage; that's how dependent we are on foreign sources of polluting petroleum products. Biomass conversion to fuels should begin immediately to both stop planetary pollution and make us energy independent. By the year 2000, the U.S.
will have burned 80% of its petroleum resources, while our coal reserves may last 100 years or so longer. But the decision to continue burning coal has serious drawbacks. This high-sulfur coal is responsible for our acid rain, which already kills 50,000 Americans and 5,000 to 10,000 Canadians annually. CLEAN, RENEWABLE FUEL SOURCE Fuel is not synonymous with petroleum, let's get over that. And new hemp/biomass energy systems will create millions of new jobs! Hemp biomass can replace every type of fossil fuel energy product. When hemp is grown for biomass as a renewable energy crop, CO2 (carbon dioxide) is breathed in by the living plants to build cell structure; the left over oxygen is breathed out replenishing earth's air supply. Then when the carbon rich hemp biomass is burned for energy the CO2 is released back into the air.
The CO2 cycle is balanced when the crop is grown the next year. This is the true meaning of recycling. Biomass conversion, utilizing the same 'cracking' technology employed by the petroleum industry will make charcoal to replace coal. Charcoal contains no sulfur, so when it is burned for industry no sulfur is emitted from the process. Sulfur is the primary cause of acid rain. The rainfall in New England often falls between household vinegar and lemon juice in its acidity on the -ph scale.
This is bad for every cell membrane it contacts, doing the most harm to the simplest life forms. The biomass cracking process also produces nonsulfur fuel oil to replace fossil fuels. Again, no sulfur is released and the new CO2 doesn't rise when harvested biomass is used for fuel. BIOMASS FOR ENERGY ABUNDANCE The gasses that remain after the charcoal and fuel oils are ectracted from hemp can be used for dribing electric power co-generators, too! This biomass "cracking" process can produce methanol or charcoal fuel, as well as the basic chemicals of industry: acetone, ethyl acetate, tar, pitch and creosote. The Ford Motor Co.
successfully operated a biomass 'cracking' plant in the 1930's at Iron Mountain, Michigan, using trees. Hemp was too costly at that time, due to the labor costs of hand harvesting. Finally, hemp seed contains 30% (by volume) oil. This oil makes high grade diesel fuel oil and aircraft engine and precision machine oil. Remember, throughout history hemp seed was made into fuel oil: the genii's lamp burned hemp seed oil, as did Abraham the prophet's and Abraham Lincoln's.
Only whale oil came near hempseed oil in popularity for fuel. When Rudolph Diesel invented his diesel engine, he intended to fuel it "by a variety of fuels, especially vegetable and seed oils" Of course all these benefits can come from hemp, a plant uniquely suited to grow and thrive practically anywhere on Earth and to be used to reclaim marginal land and help ease the desertification of the planet. Hemp is 77% cellulose, a basic chemical feed stock (industrial raw material) used in the production of chemicals, plastics and fibers. Depending on which U.S. agricultural report is correct, an acre of full grown hemp plants can sustainably provide from four to 50 to even 100 times the cellulose found in cornstalks, kenaf, or sugar cane--the planet's next hightest annual cellulose plants. In most places, hemp can be harvested twice a year and, in warmer areas such as southern California, Texas, Florida and the like, it could be a "year round" crop.
Hemp has a short growing season and can be planted after food crops have been harvested. An independent, semi-rural network of efficient and automomous farmers will become the key economic player in the production of energy in this country. The United States government pays (in cash or in "kind") for farmers to refrain from growing on 89 million acres of farmland each year, called the soil bank. Ten million of these acres in hemp would be the equivalent of 500 million to one billion acres of corn. Hemp fuel derivatives, along with the recycling of paper, etc., would be enough to run America virtually without oil, except as petroleum fertilizer.
And 10 million to 89 million acres of hemp or other woody annual biomass planted on the this restricted, unplanted fallow farmland (our soil bank) would make energy a whole new ball game and be a real attempt at doing something to save the Earth. FAMILY FARMS OR FOSSIL FUELS In about 10 years, when our petroleum resources have dwindled to 20% of their original size, America will have four choices: *Burn all our poisonous coal; *Go to war over foreign oil; *Cut down our forests for fuel;or *Grow and process a variety of environmentally safe fuels from biomass. Farming only 6% of continental U.S. acreage with biomass would provide all of America's energy needs and independence on fossil fuels. 'Illegal' hemp is Earth's #1 biomass resource: capable of producing 10 tons per acre in four months. Hemp is easy on the soil, and ideal crop for the semi-acrid west and open range land. (Adam Beatty, vice president of the Kentucky Agricultural Society, reported instances of good crops of hemp on the same ground for 14 years in a row without a decline in yield.
"Southern Agriculture," A. Beatty, C.M. Saxon & Co., NY; 1843. p. 113.) It is the only biomass source available that is capable of once again making the U.S.
energy independant. Legal hemp would return billions of dollars worth of natural resource potential back to the farmers and bring millions of good jobs in energy production to America's heartland. Hemp energy farmers will become our producers of raw materials for many of the nation's needs. Family farms will be saved. Crops can be tailored to the needs of the nation. Biomass can be grown for fuel at about $30 per ton or seed crops can be pressed for oil; the left over seed cake makes a high protein raw food resource.
Hemp grown for fiber will bring the paper and textile industry back to the local communities and out of the hands of the multinational corporations. THE CATCH The "catch" is obvious: The energy companies! They own most of the petro- chemicals, pharmaceutical, liquor, and tobacco companies, and are intertwined with the insurance companies and banks that own them in such a way as to make untangling their various interlocking directorates (plutocracies) a Herculean task for even the most dedicated researcher. Many politicians now in power, according to the press, are bought and paid for by the energy companies, and their U.S. government arm is the CIA, a.k.a. "The Company" (Robert Ludlum, et al).
The Bush/Quayle administration is uniquely tied to oil, newspapers, and pharmaceuticals--as well as the CIA. The world stuggle for money is actually a struggle for energy, as it is through energy that we may produce food, shelter, transportation, and entertainment. It is this struggle which often erupts into open war. It may not be that if we remove the cause, the conflicts will also be removed, but the possibi ...
Research paper topics, free essay prompts, sample research papers on Cannabis Hemp Marijuana