Research paper topics, free example research papers
You are welcome to search thousands of free research papers and essays. Search for your research paper topic now!
Research paper topic: Xml And Java - 1355 words
NOTE: The research paper or essay you see on this page is a free essay, available to anyone. You can use any paper as a sample on how to write research papers or as a source of information. We strongly discourage you to directly copy/paste any essay and turn it in for credit. If your school uses any plagiarism detecting software, you might be caught and accused of plagiarism. If you need a custom term paper, research paper or essay, written from scratch exclusively for you, please, use our paid research papers writing service!
Xml And Java XML and Java Abstract Most web developers are intimately familiar with HTML, which is a language for presenting information on-screen so that it can be read by a human. A new markup language is rapidly gaining attention, however. XML allows for the presentation of information which can be read by a computer program. It is likely that the future of web development includes the creation of increasing numbers of programs, which make intelligent use of the data on XML-based web pages. And Java is a very good language for creating those programs. There has been a close relationship between Java and XML since the earliest mention of XML.
John Bosak of Sun Microsystems, Chair of the XML Working Group has said that XML gives Java something to do (Web Techniques, pg. 43). Since there has been a decision to provide a standard Java API for manipulating XML (WT Pg. 43), the use of Java to manipulate XML documents is likely to continue, and increase over time. What is XML? XML stands for eXtensible Markup Language.
It looks a lot like HTML. In fact, both HTML and XML are commonly viewed as a subset of SGML (Standard Generalized Markup Language). SGML is very complicated, a fact that has lead to its failure to gain widespread usage. HTML, its greatly simplified descendant, has been a resounding success, but it is beginning to demonstrate some significant limitations. XML is in between these markup languages in terms of complexity.
It is more complex than HTML, but still significantly less complex than SGML. (Dynamic Web Publishing Unleashed - Pg. 744-745). It is essentially an attempt to define a common ground between HTML and SGML. Like SGML, XML is a metalanguage for defining markup languages.
XML allows you to define your own markup language consisting of new tags which you can use to encode the information in your web documents far more precisely than can be done with HTML. XML is not a replacement for HTML. It is, instead, a supplement to HTML. While HTML will continue to be used for standard web pages, XML will be useful for applications that need more intelligent documents and more processing ability (DWP - Pg. 745).
The main limitations of HTML are lack of extensibility, structure, and validation. (http:// metalab.unc.edu/pub/sun-info/standards/xml/why/xml apps.html). Extensibility. HTML has a fixed number of tags. While the W3C and browser developers can (and frequently do) add tags, users cannot create their own tags to more accurately describe their data.
Structure. HTML does not support the creation of nested tags, which would be used to describe and represent databases or object hierarchies. Validation. HTML does not support document validation. It has no means of allowing an application to check the data for validity, or to ensure that the markup is correct and well formed.
XML differs from HTML in all three of these major areas: It allows developers to define new tags and attributes as needed It allows document tags to be nested as deeply as needed. Any XML document can include or make reference to a description of its grammar and syntax for use by applications that need to validate the structure of a document. XML will be most widely used in applications, which cannot be accomplished within the limitations of HTML. According to Jon Bosak of Sun Microsystems (Future of the web) These applications can be divided into four broad categories: Applications that require the Web client to mediate between two or more heterogeneous databases Applications that require the Web client to present different views of the same data to different users. Applications that require the Web client to present different views of the same data to different users. Applications in which intelligent Web agents attempt to tailor information discovery to the needs of the individual users.
One more quote from Mr. Bosak: XML can do for data what Java has done for programs, which is to make the data both platform-independent and vendor-independent. Why Java? It can be argued that Java is an ideal language to use to create the applications listed above. At the most obvious level, both have been promoted almost exclusively for use in Web environments. But several features of the Java language make it particularly well suited for working with XML.
One feature is support for Unicode. Most commonly used languages still favor use of ASCII to represent strings. This choice, however, makes it difficult to represent the character sets of many non-English languages. Unicode, on the other hand, has some 39,000 characters, and has plenty of room for expansion. Java supports Unicode from the bottom up (WT - Pg. 44). Other features of Java made it very easy to share the code needed to build XML processing applications. The most important of these are packages, dynamic class loading, and Javabeans (WT - Pg.
44). Packages and package naming allow for the sharing of code across the Internet without name clashes. Dynamic class loading allows applications to ship with a minimum configuration, and retrieve additional components as needed. And JavaBeans are useful for expressing XML because they can have a straightforward data model, and can be subclassed to exhibit specific behaviors. (WT Pg. 44).
Since the early days, Java has been used to create XML parsers. One of the first such efforts, originating in the XML-Dev mailing list used Java to create a parser which is now known as SAX (Simple API for XML). Because the developers were from all over the world, they needed a language, which made it easy for developers using much different system to share their work. Java is much better for this than other languages such as C or C++, since it is totally machine independent, and Java executables dont need to be re-compiled to run on different platforms. (XML and Java Technologies) Sun has promoted the concept of portable data and portable code.
Sun is adding XML extension to the Java language to further promote its use for this type of application. The proposed Sun extension will allow developers to use standard API functions to read, manipulate, and generate XML text. This will make it much easier for developers to use XML technologies in Java. It will also provide a standard, which helps ensure compatible and consistent implementations. (XML & Java Technologies) Since business forms and other documents in the future are likely to use XML in order to be more portable (machine and platform and application independent), it makes sense that the language that will be used to process these documents will also be platform independent.
If purchase orders, insurance forms, invoices and other documents can be sent as XML documents, then virtually any user on any platform can create them. And the organizations, which receive and process these documents, will need platform-independent and standards-based tools for validating and processing them. What kinds of applications are suited to XML and Java? According to JP Morgenthal, Director of Research at NC.Focus, XML and Java are particularly well suited to the following applications. We will discuss each of these in some detail to expand on his thoughts: Electronic Data Interchange and E-Commerce Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) Enterprise Application Integration (EAI) Publishing Software Development Electronic Data Interchange and E-Commerce - The Internet has triggered a virtual explosion of web-based business transactions. Consumers are increasingly buying products from e-stores, and businesses are rapidly implementing purchasing and supply-chain systems using Internet standards.
Today, much of this data is moving in the form of proprietary data files and web-based forms, which are closely tied to back-end programs such as CGI/Perl scripts or Java Servlets. It has been argued that these systems would be much more flexible if they shared data using a standard XML format. This would allow for more flexible formatting of data, easier maintenance as requirements change, and the separation of the data from the programs and screens which create it, and the programs which process it. When the data is in an XML format, it describes itself. This allows programs to interpret this description, and act accordingly. Without XML, each electronic transaction requires the ...
Research paper topics, free term papers, essays, sample research papers on Xml And Java