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Research paper example essay prompt: Why Did Party Politcs Develop After 1789 In The United States - 1332 words
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.. t - 'Hamiltonian'. This sparked the growth of Jeffersonian Republicanism. According to John Miller, in his text The Federalist Era, Hamilton's aim was 'to promote the unity and National power in the United States' not to create a rift of political differences. However, as to truthfully put in Cunninghams work The Making of The American Party System, the rise of the political party 'was not solely the results of the contest between Hamilton and Jefferson! Differences on foreign policy, which was out of Hamilton's league also gave ammunition for partisanship in the Revolutionary War in France, Citizen Edmund Gent canvassing for War support in the United Sates stirred controversy.
In turn, the Government's decision to be Passive in this matter annoyed many Citizen's as they considered France their ally. Surprisingly this was one issue that Hamilton and Jefferson both agreed upon. To be involved in the war would jeopardized the United States economic health'. Nonetheless, the representative group of the supporters of the French alliance, revolution become a recognised organisation the Democratic Republican Societies. They criticised Washington's administration because they refused to go to the aid of France. This issue created a deep rift in political identification in the wider society. Norton reiterates this point by identifying these societies as the first formally organised political dissenters in the United States.
The Constitution of the United States was created with the intention of the United States to be uni-party Republic. At no time was it thought dissent be evitable. It was the belief that move than one party would make the Republic weak and this weakness would be undermined by other countries. Nevertheless, the growth of political differences secured the fate of a multiparty nation. Further dissent is noted in the reaction to Jay's Treaty of 1794. The Treaty rectified Anglo-American Affairs, it assured the minimisation of British presence on the continent and their attacks on the United States neutrality rights in relation to trade with the French West Indies.
The most controversial clause, stirred the 'dormant' Democratic Republican, was Britain's refusal to compensate runaway slaves and the United States commitment to pay England their pre-war debts. However , 'unrest; was quelled via Pickney's Treaty of 1796, a Treaty established with Spain allowing the United States to navigate the Mississippi. By 1795 then, it is safe to assess that, thanks to the information. Norton et al has provided, regional differences contributed to differences political were identifiable especially in Congress. By 1796, Hofstadter asserts, that partisan has were identifiable. Republicans were the followers of Jefferson whilst the federalists were those believed in a strong activist Government, unity of states which equated into a strong National government.
The Federalists were those who believed in Hamiltonian policies. The Republicans feared a strong 'overbearing' government and feared the rule by the capitalised of the North; stock jobbers, stock holders, bank directors and brokers. This was the fear of most southerners and agrarianists. It is from this background that we understand why the Republicans felt and proved themselves to be defenders of local rights and privileges. Republicans believed in a participatory government in which the people had more say on Government issues.
This counteracted the federalist view of an elitest rule Government, where the highly educated, anglicanised and aristocratic gentry class, served to rule the nation. It should be duly noted that the 'Republican Party' had foresight in the expansion and continuation of West ward expansion and the opportunities which this region had. These little factors by 1789 gained them support from the Non-English immigrants, promoting equality and though noting the importance of neutrality, still showed empathy for the French cause. The empathy for the French cause was further propelled by the so called XYZ affair and the Quasi-War with France. The anti-war Republicans, did not appreciate the cause of the action.
They stood firm in their opinion that France was a sister country and should not be attacked. Further divisions, deeper etched the party lines; party ties may have been jeopardized. Hostility in partisanship and the recognition of Party philosophies is highlighted in the words of Abigail Adams, who said '.. if Jefferson had been President we should all have been sold to the French.'. The Nation then had realised its factional differences by the Election of 1796, however, Congress nor the Constitution were ready to introduce bi-partisan elections.
Republican philosophy versus Federalist philosophy for the period between elections 1796 to 1800 was continual. It should be noted that the election of 1796 allowed, what one can describe as a mixed Presidency. The Federalist John Adams was the President whilst Republican Thomas Jefferson was the Vice President. Therefore it is safe to assess that the Federalist still ruled the Government. The Federalist facing their decline in popularity due to the growth of partnership sought to destroy the creditability of their growing opponents the Republicans. It was realised and previously discussed in this essay that the Republican party derived much of its support from the English immigrants.
Therefore via theorising and advocating that the Republicans were subversive foreign agents whose support lies in immigrants, Congress - majority being Federalist passed a series of laws called the Alien and Sedition Acts. These acts allowed the deportation of many Republican supporters and was a well devised plan for federalists survival, thus lessening the growing political dissent. This act lengthened the Naturalisation period from five years to fourteen years. Therefore citizenship being the criteria vote, meant that the level of support the Republicans experienced was either stagnated or faced decline. The Republicans counteracted via the Virginia and Kentucky resolutions of 1798. These resolutions were to nullify these Acts in these states via the power of the State Legislature. This is easily interpreted as the republican philosophy of State rule rather than National.
The factors that have argued give us the answer to why did political panties develop after 1789 in the United States. However, the date must be put into prospective until the issues. It is often averted that partisanship was caused by Hamiltonian measures, this is only partially true. Hamiltonian policies rekindled differences that were evident from the 1787 Ratification debates. Many of those present and those who it affected did not want to relinquish state rights, nor did they believe that a Government should be given the right to tax, an issue which had propelled them to cut their colonial ties. Thus anytime after Hamilton's reports can be discussed as time frame for party development. It should be noted also that for parties to develop their beliefs and their philosophies must be established and it wasn't until repetitive controversial issues that a philosophy or belief could be identified and utilised.
Even when the philosophy was 'declared' to gain support they needed to be exposed to the wider public. This was established via the use of the 'print' media via allyists propaganda Newspapers and or the Pamphlets and public meetings. Republicans views were printed in the National Gazette edited by Freneau whilst in the Fenno edited United States Gazette, Hamiltonian Federalist philosophies were printed. Each justifying their beliefs. Each party position was precisely printed and the public could side with whose philosophy they felt comfortable.
Each party thus becoming stronger by support and number and differences clearly observable. The circulation of such matter was nit done until 1791. Once again the view that development of the party did not occur until after 1789 is understood. In addition by 1789, the path the present government was going from 1787 would have been clearly marked and thus opposition could have been definitely established with sufficient evidence of their actions, to criticise. In closing, it is fair to assert that the constitution and the constitutionality of the moves made by government were the main cause of the rise of the political party.
The constitution always faced opposition, by 1789 it was still relatively new and thus how it would operate was yet to be established thus in the final decade of the 1700's was the initial start of conflictial ideologies and thus the feared split nation was given birth. History.
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