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Research paper topic: Utilitarianism Slavery - 1049 words
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.. over their slaves, which included, by law, the power of life and death. Slavery was also far more necessary to the economy and social system of Rome, than it had been in Greece. The wealthy Romans, often maintaining large city and country homes, depended on numerous slaves for the continuous and efficient operation of these households. Imperial conquests and expansion eventually exhausted the native Roman workforce, so a great number of foreign slaves had to be imported to work the agricultural labor needs.
The primary way of acquiring slaves was through war; tens of thousands of captured prisoners of war were brought to Rome as slaves. Other sources of slaves were debtors, who sold themselves or members of their families into slavery, and persons convicted of serious crimes. Ultimately, the dependence on slavery caused Romes significant decline in the end. After the introduction of Christianity, its adoption as the official religion of the Roman Empire, and its subsequent spread over Europe and parts of the Middle East during the Middle Ages helped to improve the conditions but did not eliminate the practice of slavery. After the fall of Rome, during the barbarian invasions that occurred at various times between the 5th and 10th centuries, caused the ancient institution of slavery was transformed into the generally less binding system known as serfdom.
Islam, established in the 7th century, recognized the institution of slavery from the beginning. The Prophet Muhammad urged his followers to use slaves kindly, however, and overall slaves owned by Muslims were treated well. Most were employed as domestic servants. The coastal exploration of Africa and the invasion of North and South America by Europeans in the 15th century, and later the colonization of the Americas during the next three centuries, provided the momentum for the modern slave trade. Portugal, which lacked agricultural workers, was the first modern European nation to meet its labor needs by importing slaves. The Portuguese began the practice in 1444; by 1460, they were annually importing 700 to 800 slaves to Portugal from trading posts and forts established on the African coast.
These were African people captured by other Africans and transported to the western coast of Africa. Spain soon followed, but for more than a century, Portugal virtually monopolized the African slaver trade. Throughout the 15th century, Arab traders in northern Africa shipped African people taken from central Africa to markets in Arabia, Iran, and India. In tropical Latin America during the 16th century, Spanish colonists first forced the native populations to work the land. The native people, however, could not survive under conditions of slavery and were nearly exterminated, in part by exposure to European disease and excruciating labor. Africans were then brought to the Spanish colonies, because it was believed that they could endure forced labor in the generally more debilitating Caribbean and mainland Latin American climates.
England entered the slave trade in the latter half of the 16th century, contesting the right to supply the Spanish colonies held until then by Portugal. France, Holland, Denmark, and the American colonies themselves subsequently entered the trade as competitors. In 1713, the exclusive right to supply the Spanish colonies was granted to the British South Sea Company. Contrary to what is commonly believed, slaves did have some legal rights, such as support in age or sickness, a right to limited religious instruction, and the right to sue and give evidence in special cases. In addition most of the slave owners gave consideration about tradition and eventually gave the slaves numerous rights. Such rights included as ownership of private property, marriage, free time, and contractual ability to females, domestic or lighter plantation labor. However, the master was not bound to respect these rules, but most of the slave owners were generous about the rights. Brutal treatment such as mutilation, branding, chaining, and murder were regulated or prohibited by law, but some instances of cruelty were common before the 19th century.
In 1800, the population of the United States included 893,602 slaves, of which only 36,505 were in the northern states. Vermont, Pennsylvania, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, and New Jersey provided for the emancipation of their slaves before 1804, most of them by gradual measures. The 3,953,760 slaves at the census of 1860 were in the southern states. On occasions, the greatest amount happiness is achieved through the suffering of a few. Therefore, there was nothing wrong with chattel slavery in America. Slavery may have been brutal and horrifying, but it was very much necessary.
The United States in 1619 was a struggling lone colony that was an extreme distance from its mother country, Britain. It was like a lost boy from its mother, trying to do everything and anything to survive out in the cold world. The truth was in order for the United States to survive, what it needed to survive was the labor of the slaves. As much as people would like to not believe it, slavery is as much apart of America as colonies. Slavery helped America bloom into the economic power, and military it is now.
This argument is sound because you can take a look at history see the evidence in hand. The slaves helped grow, and harvest crops as well as other manual labors in the factories and at home. They helped to lay down the foundation for the United States and helped the U.S. establish itself as a country. If there were no slavery then the colonies would not have been able to establish itself, causing it to not be able to gather enough strength for the American Revolution. The slaves were the backbone of the United States; they built this country up from the ground.
Although many people argue that we should have avoided slavery, but that would have meant no source of labor for the colonists. Based on the Utilitarianism the greater good would be to have slaves. It would be in the best interest for our country and for the people living in our country. The blacks may have had to suffer a little bit, but it was in the best interest for the majority to have them be the source of labor for our country. They helped the Europeans build the New World into a formidable country.
This brought the greatest amount of happiness over the least amount of unhappiness. Philosophy.
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