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Research paper topic: Ufos: Fact Or Fiction - 2028 words
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.. hich explains UFO reports. This hypothesis declares that there is no need to consider pseudoscientific or more exotic hypotheses; there is certainly no justification for the idea that UFO reports represent evidence for the activity of aliens or paranormal influences (Amateur 15). The similar appearances of UFOs are easily explained using the mirage theory. Stars and planets can be seen from anywhere on Earth. Our atmosphere is as likely to produce an inverted reflection (mirage) in one place as another. Moreover, the few basic shapes reported are consistent with the protean forms seen in mirages, especially the double saucer shape. The saucer disc is not an imagined shape for alien space craft (after all, our spacecrafts are a completely different shape). It is a real shape seen in the sky.
(Amateur Science 15) This real shape is that of different planets and stars. Through reflection though, they appear to be flying objects in our skies. This also explains why UFOs move through the sky at great speeds and perform impossible maneuvers, while making no sound. There are no limitations on the speed or maneuvers of an image, and images do not make any noise. Most UFOs are eventually identified as hoaxes or astronomical events, aircrafts, satellites, weather balloons, or other natural phenomena.
According to studies performed by the U.S. Air Force less than 2% of UFO sightings remain unidentifiable.. It is probable that with more information those 2% would be identified as something other than alien spacecraft (UFOs and Ets 9). Maybe the reason that no logical explanation is credible to UFO believers is because they do not want to hear a logical explanation, or they make little or no effort to find one. UFO existence is not proved just because a logical explanation can not be found. Furthermore, UFO existence is not proved just because it can not be disproved. The fact that some genius cannot come up with an explanation for something does not mean that the contrary is true; a claim does not become true or reasonable if the contrary cannot be proved to be true.
Attacking arguments or motives instead of presenting positive evidence is another common tactic of UFO believers. Contradiction is not a substitute for support/proof. It is illogical to assume that because ones reasons are flawed, that your own are not. In addition, why is it that UFOs are usually observed by untrained skywatchers and almost never by professional or amateur astronomers, people who spend inordinate amounts of time observing the heavens above. One would think that astronomers would have spotted some of these alien crafts. Perhaps the crafty aliens know that good scientists are skeptical and inquisitive. Such beings might pose a threat to the security of a story well-told.
(UFOs and Ets 9) An article entitled UFOs and Ets defines a UFO as an unidentified flying object which has been identified as a possible or actual alien spacecraft (2). These objects include meteors, satellites, birds, airplanes, lights, weather balloons, and mirages/reflections. Many photographs of these objects have been taken, but most are blurry and forgeries. As for alleged debris from crashes, landings, and implants, most has turned out to be quite terrestrial, including hoaxes (UFOs and Ets 2). One main reason for believing in UFOs is because of the testimony of many different people. We trust incompetent people that tell us fantastic stories, and distrust all contrary scientific sources.
The believers insist that there is a massive conspiracy to withhold the truth, and they aspire for contact with the unknown world above. So far, nothing has ever been positively identified as an alien spacecraft. There is also no physical evidence which undoubtedly supports a UFO landing, and no conclusive justification of UFOs ever entering our skies. Epilogue Are alien spacecrafts out there somewhere, or are we misidentifying these objects in the sky? The question still remains: What is it that we are seeing in our skies? In the pages preceding, Chapter I (only touching the surface of the subject) proved convincingly that UFOs are indeed visiting our planet while Chapter II (again only touching the surface of the subject) proved convincingly that UFOs are indeed a case of falsified information and misidentified objects. Both sides of the UFO debate have proven to be extremely convincing. This is why UFOs are, and will continue to be, one of the most controversial mysteries known to mankind; a mystery which may never be solved.
Did an alien spaceship crash land into the desert in Roswell, New Mexico? Or did a couple of weather balloons burst and fall to the ground? Many eyewitnesses and military personnel have spoken out and claimed that the wreckage was not terrestrial. On the other hand, others who saw the recovered debris have insisted that it was that of a weather balloon. To add to this uncertainty, the original press release issued by the U.S. Air Force stated that the Air Force had recovered a flying disk (Moore 3). Hours later though, this statement was discarded, and the general in command claimed that the wreckage was that of a NYU weather balloon. Recently, the American Computer Company has made claims that the Roswell crash wreckage led Bell scientists to discover the transistor, laser and integrated circuits (DeBow 2-3). Are such claims bogus? Roswell is a great example of plausible, yet contradicting, evidence.
The military may know the answers to all our questions about the Roswell incident, but it appears that we may never get a straight-forward and honest answer from them. Another UFO sighting with two very valid arguments is the Kenneth Arnold sighting of 1947. Kenneth Arnold was a normal businessman in Idaho. As an upstanding and reputable citizen and an expert on flying, Arnold was believed when he said that he witnessed a ship zoom back and forth at approximately 1,200 miles per hour. (UFOs? 8) His story did have discrepancies though.
For instance, the description he gave of the flying objects changed from them being flat like a pie pan to crescent-shaped, with swept-back wings (Menzel 5). Some researchers do believe that Arnold was not lying. These researchers claim that the flying crafts he witnessed were merely mirages of the nearby Cascade Mountains, and that the sighting was just a case of mistaken identity. This mirage theory has become more accepted in recent years. Mirages are caused by abnormal reflections which makes real objects appear to be floating in the sky. The similarities in UFO reports can be explained with this concept of mirages.
For the most part, mountain ranges are of a consistent shape, stars/planets are of a consistent shape,.., etc. When these objects of alike shapes are reflected into the sky, they will yield sightings which describe flying crafts of a couple similar shapes. This constant pattern of sizes and shapes fuels a UFO advocates argument. These believers claim that the consistency in UFO reports proves that alien crafts do exist, but many scientists and researchers are now identifying many of these sightings as mistaken identity due to mirages. Also, this well-known configuration of UFOs results in thousands of hoaxes which are made to mimic the authentic appearance of an alien spacecraft. During the middle of the twentieth century UFO sightings greatly increased.
Most sightings were evaluated by both UFO advocates and UFO skeptics. The skeptics have attempted to discredit all of the alleged sightings. One which they could not invalidate was the Trent Photos from 1950. To this day they remain officially unexplained, or in laymen terms, authentic photographs of a UFO. The photos were analyzed by a government-run research program entitled The Condon Report.
Their conclusion was that the simplest, most direct interpretation of the photographs confirms precisely what the witness said she saw, a UFO (Life 138). The Trent Photos were also proved authentic with very high-tech photo analyzers by William Spaulding, an independent researcher. This single case greatly damages the skeptics argument, but still fails to prove without a doubt that UFOs do indeed exist. Many people believe that UFO existence has already been proven. These UFO supporters argue that the Trent Photos are just additional evidence to be piled onto the high stack of government documents which confirm that alien spacecrafts have indeed entered our air space. For the UFO advocates in our world, words like conspiracy and cover-up are well-known. Almost all believers claim that governments are hiding information from us.
Is this constant denial of UFO existence because our government wants to ensure national safety and prevent potential mass hysteria, or is it because they have genuinely surmised that aliens do not exist? Many ex-military and CIA personnel claim to have seen alien crafts, alien implants and alien beings. Are their claims sincere, or merely a hoax. What about the Firemans handbook, and visual/radar affirmation of UFOs by the military? In the Firemans handbook there are 14 pages dedicated to how to control a disaster when a flying saucer crashes, and Chapter 13 is entitled Enemy Attack and UFO Potential (DeBow 1). Why would a fireman undergo training for a crash or attack of something that does not exist? Also, in July of 1952, a formation of seven blips entered the restricted airspace over the White House. One week later the blips again appeared, prompting the Air Force to vector two F-94s toward the objects.
In a CIA memo dated July 28, 1952, to the Deputy Director/ Intelligence from the Acting Assistant Director of Scientific Intelligence stated: In the past several weeks numerous UFOs have been sighted visually and on Radar. (Investigate 1) The government ended their investigation of these sightings after taking the position that they were nothing more than radar mirages caused by temperature inversions (Investigate 2). The government, even after indisputable visual confirmation, stated that there were no objects in the sky, but that they were only mirages on a radar. Is this a case of mistaken identity, or is it another footprint in the governments massive cover-up? Skeptics denounce this cover-up theory. Numerous skeptics believe that people who report UFOs are either fantasy prone, psychopathological, hypnotizable or less intelligent than normal and should not be taken seriously. Studies have shown that this viewpoint is not accurate. It is true that stories are sometimes generated by uneducated people, but uneducated doesnt imply unintelligent (Hynek 9). Reports from police officers, military personnel, pilots,.., etc are no more reliable than those from anyone else.
Furthermore, most people who report UFOs have no interest in the subject and are not professional observers. A claim as incredible as seeing a UFO requires more than eyewitnesses to be believed. There needs to be hard evidence which declares, without a doubt, that what was seen was indeed a UFO. In order to understand the present and to predict the future, we must understand the past. The study of the history of Ufology (the study of UFOs) is as important as the history of any other subject if one is to grasp it. (Bray 37) There are many people that believe UFOs exist, but there are just as many people that dispute the existence of alien beings.
Skeptics argue that there is no material evidence of UFOs and aliens. Adversely, UFO advocates argue that no logical explanation has ever been found for many alleged sightings. Unfortunately for these UFO buffs, UFO existence is not proved just because a logical explanation cannot be attained. Likewise though, their existence cannot be disproved just because it can not be proved. A claim does not become authoritative only because the contrary cannot be confirmed. This paper examines just a few of the grounds on which both sides argue.
The question is, which side is right? Both points of view have valid claims, yet both are convincingly persuasive. If only we the people could trust our governments stand on the issue. After all, if UFOs do not exist, why all the secrecy? Again we ask ourselves, what and who, are we to believe? Bibliography Amateur Science Solves the UFO Mystery. 18 pages. Online. Internet.
April 4, 1998. Boyer, Mark, and Kaethe Ellis. The American Heritage Dictionary. New York: Dell Publishing, 1983. Bray, Arthur. The UFO Connection.
Ottawa, Ontario: Jupiter Publishing, 1979. DeBow, Mathew. (Article Title Unknown). UFO Chronicles. 13 pages. Online.
Internet. April 1, 1998.
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