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Research paper example essay prompt: Ufo Kinds - 3432 words
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UFO Kinds Ever since US Air Force Pilot Kenneth Arnold coined the term Flying Saucer, on 24th June 1947, after allegedly encountering nine disk shaped objects while out flying over the Cascade Mountains, the world wide sightings of such objects, has increased logarithmically. By 1957 the furor over UFO sightings showed no sign of abating and the sightings had now been awarded levels of classification by US Astronomer, Allen. J. Hynek. Hynek created three categories for UFO encounters: Close encounters of the first kind: nocturnal lights, daylight disks, the second kind: Physical affects left by UFOs, marks on the ground, car engines stalling and finally close encounters of the third kind: the actual witnessing of beings emerging from their craft. But on September 20th 1961, the categorization of this phenomena took on a fourth dimension when Betty and Barney Hill claimed while driving home one night, they were allegedly abducted by alien beings. The Hills were the first individuals in modern history to state publicly that they had been abducted by extraterrestrial beings, leading to a new era, with reports of alien abductions occurring world wide.
But to be abducted whilst outdoors like the Hills is considered to be extremely rare, with almost all cases being reported at night, while the abductee was in bed and without any independent witness corroboration. The description of the alleged alien abductors varied widely throughout the world but in the last ten years or so the descriptions of the abductors have become almost indistinguishable. Therefore, the object of this project is to try and establish the possibility that a minority of the human race, could conceivably be being abducted from their beds at night, by a super intelligent race of extraterrestrial beings or do these people just perceive that they have been abducted and there is a more down to earth answer for the abduction phenomena. The first part of this project contends that alien beings do not come from out a-space but a lot more closer to home or more specifically inside the human brain. The project's debate, is that the reason behind the vast majority of abduction cases might be temporal lobe epilepsy, epilepsy which triggers a condition known as hypnogogic sleep disorder. When a person is in the midst of hypnogogic sleep they are almost always completely paralyzed and suffer hypnopompic hallucinations, hallucinations which give the sufferer the impression of a presence around their beds with the secondary effect of floating.
When a person reaches this stage of the hallucination they then interpret it as being an alien abduction experience. The project will then look at outside influences that might trigger temporal lobe epilepsy, influences like electrical trauma and or electromagnetic fields, fields that are higher in density in more areas than others, areas that are located close to radio masts and electricity pylons. The essay will then look at Dr. Michael Persinger's experiments with electromagnetic fields experiments were Persinger was able to recreate hypnogogic type hallucinations. The next part of the project will then debate, that a section of the human race is being systematically taken from the planet, for reasons that are not clear.
It will tell of the advantages of night time abductions and tell of an exceptionally rare case of an abduction with multiple and credible witness. The project will then reveal the striking similarities of alleged alien beings and the mythical beings portrayed throughout different cultures, similarities that are particularly evident within the prophetic messages given to these said cultures by their gods from the stars. The second part of the debate will close by putting forward a theory for the attention we seem to be receiving from our extraterrestrial inquisitors, suggesting that the emergence of the human race into the nuclear age, might in part be responsible. The aim of chapter three, is to analyze and evaluate it's primary sources of research (Questionnaire and Little Gray Man Experiment) looking at the statistics and their relationship to the alien abduction phenomena. The project will then give an interpretation of the findings, starting with the questionnaire, revealing that there is a pattern throughout the questionnaire, a pattern showing that the vast majority of people are willing to believe in un-provable beliefs. The interpretation of the little gray man experiment, helps to demonstrate the power of the media and the influence it has in giving people preconceived ideas of what an alien life form might look like, which might explain why people nearly always see the same being.
Chapter three will then examine the relationship between the mass media and its effects on peoples opinions and how people appear to be led by the media, contending that the emergence of alien abductions has become more prolific since the advent of television and extraterrestrial beings are the result of a war of the ratings as opposed to a the war of the worlds. The final part of this project will sum up the subject matter that has been debated (are people being abducted from their beds at night by extraterrestrial beings or are these people suffering from a neurological disorder that might be being agitated by the media) and then draw a conclusion from the debate. Chapter 1 NEUROLOGICAL EXPLANATIONS Alien abductions are not as straight forward as they seem, do the answers lie in outer space or is it all in the mind? The vast majority of all alleged alien abductions, occur at night in bed, just as the potential victim is about to enter into a deep sleep. Could there be a connection, some theorist believe there is and one hypothesis suggests, that alien abductions are strongly connected to sleep paralysis syndrome. Sleep paralysis syndrome, is believed to be a form of epilepsy or to be more specific, temporal lobe epilepsy "temporal lobe epilepsy is important to emotions and other sensations, it is possible that disturbance in this part of the brain is responsible for the sleep disorder narcolepsy" (Chadwick., 1988, P.14).
Narcolepsy manifests its self in several different ways, depending on the individual sufferer but the most common outcome is a seizure taking place, whilst the sufferer is still sleeping, to a rare condition known as hypnogogic sleep. Hypnogogic sleep is the medical term for sleep paralysis syndrome and this condition is thought to be closely associated to Rapid Eye Movement sleep (REM), which is a phase of sleep closely related to dreaming. When in REM sleep, the body is believed to be paralyzed, this is thought to be an in-built safety mechanism to stop people physically carrying out there dreams, like being violent or trying to run. When people suffering from this condition awaken, they are fully aware of their surroundings but the paralyzing symptoms of REM sleep are thought to persist "people suffering from the hypnogogic sleep disorder, awaken from REM sleep but their body remains in a state of paralysis with the exception of the sufferer being only able to move their eyes" (Hufford, 1982, P. 107).
When a person suffering from hypnagogic sleep disorder awakens into an altered state, as well as the paralysis, the sufferer will often encounter vivid and frightening dreamlike experiences. These hallucinations are a major component of the hypnagogic sleep disorder and are so real to the sufferer, that they are unable to distinguish them from reality. In almost all cases, the same scenario is played out, beginning with the afflicted person realizing that they are unable to move any part of their body, this instinctively sends them into a blind panic. Typically, they then enter into the final stage of hypnogogic sleep and experience hypnopomic hallucinations. It is at this hypnopomic stage, that the stupefied victim senses a presence in the room with them, this is usually coupled with the sensation of floating, making the circumstances ideal for the terrified recipient of the paralysis, to interpret the situation as an alien abduction "I was quite conscious of the fact I could not move, conscious of were I was going and the creature in front of me.
I was floating and felt like a bear on the end of an invisible rope" (Hough.P, 1997, P.50). This is a fairly typical account of a nocturnal alien abduction experience and contains all the components to classify it as such. Some people have been so affected by what they perceive to be an alien abduction, they have then felt compelled to write about their experience. A good example of this is by the famous horror writer Whitley Strieber. Strieber was alleged to have undergone a classic alien abduction scenario "Is someone there? I wondered aloud.
the door opened a few inches and I had a glimpse of a big and glistening black eye, belonging to a distinctly non human face. Then there is something like a burst of lightning from above and the house was bathed in light" (Strieber.W, 1987) Strieber was so overwhelmed by his alien abduction incident, that he was inspired to write the best selling book Communion, Which allegedly portrayed his abduction ordeal. Strieber continued to experience what he perceived to be alien abductions after writing communion, therefore he decided to seek a medical explanation for his strange encounters. "After undergoing a batch of psychological and IQ tests he was given a clean bill of health, he was then given a brain scan (M.I.R) and this also turned out to be negative. finally Strieber was subjected to a temporal lobe scan (E.E.G) but this time the test was positive and inconsistencies were found in this area of his brain" (Schnabel.J, 1994). Strieber past the rigorous psychological examinations set before him but the discovery of anomalies within the temporal lobe region of his brain, is symptomatic of narcalepsey.
Therefore, what Strieber and thousands like him perceived to be alien abduction, could instead be TLE. It seems more likely then, that the answer to the alleged alien abductions does not lie in out-a space but more likely in inner space, within the human brain. One possible source for the alien abduction phenomenon could be attributed to electrical activity, particularly electrical trauma to the brain. The human brain is a highly sensitive bioelectrical organ that continuously conducts millions of electrical impulses through it's billions of neurons and in essence it could be described as a super computer "At any one time , the brain is a junction box alive with incoming and out going messages. These are carried by thousands of millions of cells, these cells form such a complex arrangement that we have little chance of understanding what individual cells do" (Barnhard.
C, 1984, P.78). This statement illustrates that the human brain is a delicate electromagnetic organ and if it is exposed to electrical trauma, this then might lead to a malfunction. Parapsychologist Albert Budden conducted a study of fifty alleged nocturnal alien abductees, to his amazement, he found that all fifty had one thing in common, they had all been exposed to a major electric shock "Almost invariably I have found that these abductees have had a major electrical event, they have been struck by lightning or been near lightning or have suffered major electrocution and this has changed their bodies permanently" (Budden A, 1998) This remarkable discovery by Budden, helps to show the ramifications of electricity on the human physiology. Therefore, did all fifty people in Budden's study suffer major electrical trauma and were then abducted by aliens or more realistically, did the electrical event somehow change the functioning of their brain, altering their perception of reality and if so could these changes be reproduced in the laboratory? Research carried out by neuropsychologist, Professor Michael Persenger suggests that the human brain is susceptible to certain kinds of natural occurring electrical energy. Persenger theorized that weak electrical impulses sent to the temporal lobes of the brain would induce hypnopomic like hallucinations.
To test his theory Persenger built a sound and light proof chamber, a subject was then placed in the booth and a purpose built helmet that was able to generate a weak electro magnetic field, was placed on the subjects head. Varying electrical impulses were then sent to the helmet, enabling Persenger to control the electromagnetic waves sent to the recipients brain. He found that this generated differing kinds of mystical experiences amongst his volunteers "The kinds of things that people reported in the chamber when their experiences were amplified by applying these complex weak electro magnetic fields, would be feelings of floating through a tube, feelings of being detached, sensations of someone being in the chamber with them. One subject said he could feel someone tugging at his legs and genitals so he labeled it as an experience contributed it to the electro magnetic field. But if you took the same experience when you are alone at night in bed, the cultural label is, alien abduction" (Persenger, 1998). This experiment by Persenger, helps to prove that under certain circumstances, electromagnetic fields can trigger hypnopomic Imagery, but this is in the laboratory, how could these events take place while we are in bed? The fact is, we are all bathed in strong electromagnetic radiation but some people are more susceptible to electro magnetic fields than others.
"This is an environmental health issue and in fact alien abductions are just a very small part of a much broader issue which is electro magnetic pollution" (Budden, 1998). If people with discrepancies within the temporal lobule area of the brain, live in the vicinity of electricity pillions, electrical sub stations, radio masts or any other generator of strong electromagnetic fields, they then might be living near the very catalyst, that triggers an alien abduction event. Chapter 2 Extraterrestrial Explanation for alien Abductions The notion that people can be taken from their beds at night against their wills by little gray alien beings and taken aboard a space craft, appears to be an outrageous claim, but unfortunately for some people it seems to be a fact of life. If the aim is to abduct a person in the most covert manner possible, then during the night would logically be the best time to achieve this goal. It is at this time that the potential abductee is at their most vulnerable, they are usually sleeping and do not see their abductors until they awaken. On awakening, the victim is almost always paralyzed and unable to speak, making the conditions ideal for the abductors to stealthy extract their quarry "Secrecy appears to be critically important to the aliens in determining the opportunities for abductions" (Jacobs D.M, 1993, P.12).
Nocturnal abductions are also advantageous in that the absence of the person who is being abducted is likely to go unnoticed and any memories that they might retain of their abduction experience, could be attributed to a vivid dream. Therefore, if the abductors wish to maintain the subterfuge when carrying out their clandestine activities, it seems more feasible to surreptitiously sequester people from their beds whilst they are in a transient state, rather than to snatch them from the street during the day. . One of the most reliable cases of alien abductions with multiple independent witnesses ever to be documented, was the Brooklyn Bridge Incident of 1989. The credibility of the witnesses was so convincing that, Bud Hopkins a UFO investigator involved with the case, felt compelled to write a book about the whole incident "I have come to the firm conclusion: This abduction event so drastically alters of the alien incursion in our world that it is easily the most important in recorded history" (Hopkins, 1994, Introduction). Hopkins is a leading authority on the alien abduction phenomena and is renowned for his fastidious approach to his research, therefore it would be fair to say that his assessment of the validity of this incident would be held in high esteem. Hopkins noted, in downtown Manhattan, New York City early on the morning of November 30, 1989 at approximately 3 am, Linda Cottile, a married mother of two, was seen emerging from an apartment building window twelve stories above ground accompanied by three small alien figures. Linda and her captors appeared to be suspended within a blue beam of light which was causing them to ascend into a large reddish-orange glowing UFO, which then moved off in the direction of the Brooklyn Bridge.
Numerous witnesses, including a high placed united nations diplomat (who remained unnamed), saw and later independently substantiated this unbelievable event. It is the presence of the numerous and influential eyewitnesses to this abduction that makes this event one of the most reliable known to date. But when Linda Cortile first reported her abduction to Bud Hopkins, he only conducted an initial investigation and concluded that there was nothing that unique about the incident, deeming it to be an archetypal abduction event containing the usual components which included the common message of imminent destruction for planet Earth. That assessment changed dramatically when Hopkins later received a letter in which two men, identified as New York City police officers, described sitting helplessly in their car and watching three creatures escort a woman (Linda Cottile) into a reddish-orange glowing oval hovering in the sky "She was floating in mid air in a beam of whitish blue light. She was then brought up to that oval, she was being escorted into that thing by three small ugly humanoid creatures" (Hopkins, 1997, P.4).
The occurrence of this event would have gone without further investigation because of its similarity to the many thousands of unsubstantiated cases like it but the corroboration of independent and authoritative witnesses, gave the whole case an new and extremely powerful dimension. Cases like this one, now seem to be prevalent throughout the world but if we go back in time and look at different cultures, it appears that alien abduction occurrences or nocturnal visitations are an age old phenomena. Throughout recorded history, many cultures have been infused with myths and legends of night time visitations by strange entities, from the Roman nocturnal demon, the Incubus: (Night mare) to the malevolent Japanese demon, Kanashibara: (To tie with iron rope). The ubiquitous presence of these nocturnal creatures across time and cultures appears to follow a set pattern with the main diversity of the narratives being in the description of the said entities "The Old Hag has been regularly reported for more than two thousand years, it has been attached to a variety of narrative frameworks . .
. , But regardless of the framework, the experiential features have remained the same" (Hufford. D, P.39, 1982). Huffords statement suggests, that visitations by insidious creatures during the night, may have played a part in differing societies throughout history, however today, there seems to be a general concessus amongst the alleged nocturnal visitations, a unanimity that comes in the guise of alien beings. Consequently, alien beings may be the successors to our ancient myths but there is also the possibility that they originally inspired them.
To our ancient ancestors, beings who came from the sky in fiery craft would in all likelihood be seen as gods, giving rise to many of the legends associated with the magical beings that have appeared throughout the history of the mankind. Therefore the alien abduction phenomena of today might be an amplified resurgence of a phenomena that is as old as the human race. Throughout the individual epochs of history, differing cultures have prophesied the end of the world, ▒the apocalypse' and one particular civilization, the ancient Maya, made that very prediction over 5000 years ago. The Maya claimed they were endowed with prophetic knowledge from their Gods "The religious legends of the ancient Mayan peoples say the stars were inhabited and that the ▒gods' came down from them. A god who became known as Quetzelcoatl taught the Mayas science, arts and customs and left very wise laws.
When Quetzelcoatl left he boarded a ship which took him to the morning star" (Vondaniken. E, 1993, P.73) After the Maya had received their visitation from the ▒star gods' their technological understanding of the world around them increased dramatically, this was particularly evident through their grasp of mathematics, when developing an extremely accurate calendar. Their calendar, accurately established the duration of the terrestrial year, 365. 24.20 days and the length of the Venus ion year of 584 days. In 3114 B.C the Mayas prophesied that on July 11, 1991, there would be a solar eclipse over southern central America, stunningly on that date, some 5105 later, Guatemala City was whiteness to a full solar eclipse. However, this astonishingly accurately prognostic calendar that was allegedly given to the Mayas by their gods from the stars, has yet another prediction, a prediction that chillingly claims, the world as we know it will come to an end on 22 Dec ...
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