Research paper topics, free example research papers
You are welcome to search thousands of free research papers and essays. Search for your research paper topic now!
Research paper topic: The North Atlantic Run: The Submarine War And The Allied Response During Ww 2 - 1436 words
NOTE: The research paper or essay you see on this page is a free essay, available to anyone. You can use any paper as a sample on how to write research papers or as a source of information. We strongly discourage you to directly copy/paste any essay and turn it in for credit. If your school uses any plagiarism detecting software, you might be caught and accused of plagiarism. If you need a custom term paper, research paper or essay, written from scratch exclusively for you, please, use our paid research papers writing service!
.. ible steps were being taken to introduce the convoy system . . . and that aircraft should be used to protect shipping .
. . on the South-Western approaches and off the coast of Spain. Between the 8th and the 11th of September, he recommended that radar be installed on ships to help protect them against U-boat attacks on the surface and to help telling the difference between friend and foe. He also recommended to Chamberlain that a Ministry of Shipping be established to, among other things, .
. . provide and organize the very large ship-building program necessary as a safeguard against the heavy losses of tonnage we may expect from a U-boats attack apprehended in the summer of 1940 . . .
. The biggest measure that the British used against the U-boat was one that they had learned in World War I, this was the use of the convoy system. In this system ships would all meet in a common port, like Halifax or New York, and wait to be grouped together for a trip across the Atlantic ocean. The merchant ships would be grouped together in the center of the convoy, while their escort ships, armed naval vessels, would surround them on the perimeter. The idea behind the escort system was to prevent a U- boat from getting in torpedo range of the merchant ships.
The problem with the escort system was that even though the ships were somewhat protected against attack, the act of getting into and out of a convoy slowed down shipping. The ships all had to meet in a common port, cross the Atlantic at the same speed when some of the ships could have gone faster, and then break out of convoy formation in a common port on the other side of the Atlantic which may not be the port that they had intended to go to. This slow down caused the amount of cargo to be ship by Britain's merchant ship to be cut by one third. Even without attacking the convoys, the Germans had succeeded in at least choking Britain's supply lines some what. Unfortunately, the convoys were susceptible to attack by concentrations of U-boats in the Wolf Pack tactics previously explored; the British needed other means to protect their shipping from attack by U-boats.
They found part of the solution in the use of aircraft. The biggest enemy of the U-boat, was itself. Because it had to run on battery power when submerged, it had to surface when those batteries died so it could go over on diesel power and recharge them. Because it was on the surface, it was vulnerable to attack. It was this problem with the U-boat that the allies exploited.
To attack U-boats on the surface, the British employed aircraft. At first the aircraft had limited success against the U- boat due to problems in the bomb that they were using and in finding the U-boat and closing for the final attack. The bomb that they were first using was a 100 pound bomb. On the 5th of September 1939, an Anson of No. 233 Squadron tried to bomb a U-boat as it was submerging.
The bomb that they dropped probably would have got the U-boat but for the fact that it skipped off the water like a rock that you would throw across a pond. The bomb bounced off the water and exploded in the air under the Anson. The plane was badly damaged and the crew had to put down in the ocean, luckily their dinghy had not been damaged and they managed to survive. To fix the problem with the bomb skipping off the ocean if it did not directly hit a U-boat on the surface, the British modified a depth charge. The navy had been using a 450 pound depth charge against the U-boats, so the British took the Mark VII naval depth charge and modified it with .
. . a rounded fairing fitted to the nose and fins at the rear to stabilize it during its passage through the air. The weapon had two disadvantages, in order to destroy a U-boat if it made a direct hit, the depth charge would have to roll off the U-boat and underneath and explode. Another disadvantage was that the weapon had to be released lower than 100 feet in the air and the aircraft had to be flying slower that 115 mph or the depth charge would be damage upon impact with the water. The aircraft also had problems in finding its target and methods.
The aircraft were later equipped with radar, but when the aircraft got within five miles, sea clutter obscured the target from detection. The solution to this problem was the installation of a spotlight on the airplane, called the Leigh Light. The aircraft would find its target using the radar and close on it, when it got almost within the range where it would lose the target due to sea clutter, it would illuminate it with the Leigh Light and make its final approach and fire upon it. To deal with the threat from the air, the Germans began to install Schnorchels on their U-boats. The Schnorchel was a device raised to the surface of the sea that allowed the U-boats to vent their diesel engines thus enabling them to be used underwater, eliminating the need to surface to recharge the batteries.
By 1943 all the U-boats were refitted with the Schnorchel and new U-boats had it incorporated in their design. For submerged U-boats, there were two related methods for detecting them. The first was a crude form of sonar called ASDIC, named after the Allied Submarine Detection Investigation Committee that developed it. The ASDIC transmitted a sound that was reflected off any submerged object and then picked up by a directional receiver that would display the object on a range screen and you could read the direction of the object from a compass receiver. Once the range and direction was found, aircraft or escort vessels could be dispatched to go after the U- boat with the depth charges.
The second method of detection of the U-boat was the use of sonobuoys which operated in a similar fashion to the ASDIC/Sonar, except for the transmitters would be in the water and the plane above would receive the signal. An aircraft would be dispatched to an area thought to contain the U-boat and drop one sonobuoy to get an initial reading. Four other buoys would be dropped along with the flight path of the aircraft, which was roughly a cloverleaf pattern. The last buoy dropped would then give the aircraft the precise position of the U-boat and the plane would go in for the attack with depth charges. In a defensive approach, the allies also fortified major bases and sources of natural resources.
An example of this is from the famous attack at Bell Island, Newfoundland, in 1942. In 1940, the Canadian government sent two guns and two searchlights to the island which was a major supplier of iron ore for the allies. Two 4.7 inch guns were mounted at the ferry docks near a cliff, one of the searchlights was installed at the beach at the east end of the island and the other at the wharf of the ferry to the mainland. Unfortunately, these defenses were not enough and on September 5th, 1942, a German U-boat came into the harbor firing at three ships and sinking the Saganaga and the Lord Strathcona. The U-boat was damaged when it ran into the Lord Strathcona in the shallow waters, damaging its conning tower, that and the fact that she was being fired upon by another ship, the Evelyn B, forced the U-boat to withdraw. In looking at the efficiency of the allied response, it is best to look at the numbers of U-boats destroyed and by what method.
Of 1,170 U-boats that were built, and 863 as operational U- boats, 784 of them were destroyed by the allies. Of the 784 destroyed, 34.5% were destroyed by surface vessels, 2.8% by allied submarines, 1.1% by mines laid by ships, 40.1% by aircraft on patrol, 7.9% were bombed in ports, 2.0% were destroyed by mines laid by aircraft, while 11.5% were lost to unknown causes. It is clear that the allies had the most success at destroying U-boats from the air with a total of 50% of destroyed U-boat being lost to various methods employed by aircraft, whereas only 38.4% were lost to methods employed by various naval vessels. Although no one response to the U-boat threat caused their defeat, the combination of all the methods that the allies used to attack the U-boats, and protect against attack by them, helped lead to the defeat of the U- boat wing of the Nazi regime. History Essays.
Research paper topics, free term papers, essays, sample research papers on The North Atlantic Run: The Submarine War And The Allied Response During Ww 2