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Research paper topic: The Cia - 1764 words
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The Cia CIA: The Black Sheep of the US Government Thinking in the philosophical terms of "good" and "evil," nothing purely "good" can survive without the slightest taint of "evil," and vice-versa. The same standard exists for everything. Just as you cannot always succeed by being purely honest, a government cannot hold itself together without committing it's own personal rights and wrongs. The United States of America has protected its residents well in the past, and kept the appearance of a mild innocense; well, most of it, anyway. The Covert Intelligence Agency (CIA) is mostly swamped in its wrongs, though many have not even been proven. The CIA has been this country's "yang" to protect the populace of the USA.
CIA is an agency of the Executive Branch of the United States government. It was created by the National Security Act of 1947, which also unified the three military departments (the Army, Navy and Marines) under a secretary of defense. It replaced the National Intelligence Authority and the Central Intelligence Group. Its purpose is to keep the U.S. government informed of foreign actions affecting our nation's interests.
The agency gathers political, economic, and military information about more than 150 nations and evaluates it for other U.S. government agencies. The CIA employs many foreign agents to supply intelligence about their native countries. It can also gather intelligence by listening to foreign radio and television broadcasts. Other ways include: reading foreign printed material available to the public, using aircraft with cameras, and using satellites to take pictures. The CIA works mostly by espionage, which is the act of spying on a country, organization, movement, or person. Using this method, the CIA evaluates and interprets information from its agents and researchers.
It uses a lot of technical devices such as electronic eavesdropping equipment and also performs counterespionage. This prevents the theft of secret information and detects the presence of spies in the United States. Some think the history of espionage goes back to prehistoric times. The bible tells of Moses sending spies into Canaan. Frederick the Great of Prussia is credited with originating organized espionage.
George Washington's spies obtained intelligence and information during the Revolutionary war. The CIA's original job was primarily intelligence gathering, but when Communism started to spread, the National Security Council directed that the agency take part in political, covert, paramilitary, and economic operations. When the Korean War broke out, the CIA performed these operations, it also had additional requirements to support the combat forces. In 1950 and 1953, the CIA went through several changes. An Office of National Estimates was given the mission of projecting future developments.
Overseas operations were placed in one directorate. Another directorate was in charge of all intelligence production and a third directorate included all support activities. During this period, up until 1961, the CIA was at the height of its cold war activity. It carried out continuous foreign intelligence, counterintelligence, political action, and propaganda.3 In 1955, Dwight D. Eisenhower signed a bill granting $46 million for the construction of a CIA Headquarters Building. The cornerstone of the building was laid on November 3, 1959.2 The CIA has played a big part in the U.S. controversy with Cuba.
On April 17, 1961, the CIA, supported by Cuban exiles, invaded Cuba. It was known as the Bay of Pigs invasion. On the same day, the first employees moved into the completed CIA Headquarters Building. On Oct. 15, 1962, the Cuban Missile Crisis began.
The CIA was the organization that discovered the Soviet-made nuclear missiles in Cuba. The missiles were capable of reaching most of the United States.2 Also in 1962, the CIA had a mission in Cuba called MONGOOSE. In this mission the CIA planned to destroy a railroad yard and bridge. It also persuaded a German ball bearing manufacturer to send reject bearings to Cuba so the machines that they were used in would malfunction. It also sabotaged new busses that were ordered by Cuba for its own use.
The CIA also assisted others in assassination planning against Cuban President Fidel Castro.6 Cuba is not the only foreign country that the CIA has carried out missions in. In Afghanistan, the CIA responded to the 1979 Soviet invasion. The CIA operated in conjunction with China. In Chile the agency worked to prevent Allende from being elected in 1958 and 1964. Allende was elected in 1970, but the CIA worked to stop his succession of power. In El Salvador a CIA-army unit, known as Seaspray, tried to locate guerillas by tracking radio transmissions. Also in El Salvador, the CIA helped stop people from voting multiple times, making it easy for rebels to identify voters.
It also worked between 1982-1984 to stop the election of National Republican Alliance party leader Roberto Aubuissin. In Guatemala the agency assisted in the successful 1954 coup against the government of Jacob Arbenz. In Iran the CIA recovered guided missiles and patrol boats with guided missiles on them. It also ran a mission to overthrow an Iranian leader in Indonesia, PM Mossagegh.6 In 1975, there were several different committees organized for the purpose of investigating the actions of the CIA. All three of the committees were only temporary.
They were disestablished after they gave their final report. On May 19, 1976, the Senate established a permanent Select Committee on Intelligence to carry out the oversight of the CIA. On July 14, 1977, the House of Representatives also established a permanent Select Committee on Intelligence. This differed from the committee that the Senate established because this committee had oversight authority over all other intelligence agencies.2 The national intelligent effort is led by the Director of Central Intelligence (DCI). The DCI oversees all of the intelligence programs.
The budget for all national intelligence activities is prepared by the DCI and is presented to Congress annually. These activities are focused and intended to support tactical military forces, and are funded separately in two programs within the Department of Defense. These two programs, the Joint Military Intelligence Program and the Tactical Intelligence and Related Activities aggression falls under the Deputy Secretary of Defense. Under the DCI is the CIA Executive Director. There are four directors under the Executive Director: the Deputy Director for Operations, the Deputy Director for Intelligence, the Deputy Director for Science and Technology, and the Deputy Director for Administration. The Deputy Director for Operations (DO) is also known as the clandestine service.
The DO conducts covert operations and includes an estimated 1,800 to 2,000 case officers who oversee several thousand foreign agents overseas. The Deputy Director for Intelligence collects and analyzes information provided by all directorates. This includes all intelligence from CIA officers, satellites, and the world press. His department also tries to predict events in foreign countries and provide the president with a daily briefing. The Deputy Director for Science and Technology has four specific duties. They include: producing the toys of the spy trade, such as disguises, false documents, and secret radio transmitters, analyzing satellite photos, intercepting foreign communications, and producing state-of-the-art espionage tools. The Deputy Director for Administration provides supplies and training, launders money, conducts background checks, debugs CIA offices, and analyzes specimens from foreign leaders to determine their health.
The CIA has had problems with double agents. A double agent is an agent who is actually working for a foreign power, usually feeding false information to his case officer.7 In 1990, a CIA team went to Berlin to go through the records of the Stasi, the former East German intelligence service. CIA officers discovered that all but a few of the Stasi's East German agents had been recruited as double agents by the Communist regime in East Berlin. In 1988, a Cuban named Felix Aspillaga told the Operations Directorate that almost every one of the agents that the CIA had recruited in Cuba was actually working for the Cubans and giving wrong information to the Americans. One of the more recent cases of a double agent deals with Aldrich Ames.
Ames was a spy for the CIA. He had a normal income and it seemed that he lived a normal life. It looked this way from the outside, but on the inside he was really working for the Soviet KGB. He was paid a total of $1.5 million by the Soviets, for his service. He deposited some of the money in his name and some if the money in his wife's name in banks in Virginia. He sold U.S. secrets to the KGB. He also gave them the names of all of the Soviets that the CIA hired as spies of its own.
His actions started in the mid 80's and he worked undetected for nine years. He and his wife were finally arrested in the spring of 1994. If convicted they would both spend life in prison. The agency has had other problems and scandals too. In 1960 a Soviet missile shot down a U.S. spy plane that was taking photos of Soviet territory. Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev then canceled a summit meeting with President Dwight D. Eisenhower. During the Vietnam War, the CIA illegally spied on thousands of Americans who opposed the war.
They did this by opening mail and using wiretaps and other illegal methods to get information.4 Investigations in the mid-1970's found that several CIA employees took part in the Watergate affair. The CIA has also taken a lot of heat for its many assassination attempts of five foreign leaders.1 Today the CIA has many problems with its agents. It had a problem with an agent named Mark McFarlin. He knowingly allowed several shipments of cocaine enter the United States from Venezuela. In the mid-80's, agents were buying arms and shipping them back to the United States illegally and putting them up for sale.
In Ghana, a CIA secretary betrayed the names of CIA agents to her lover. It cost the CIA $13 million to resettle the agents back in the United States. The CIA also had several agents betray the agency while spying in Iran.7 The latest scandal is the cover-up of papers containing information on the possible exposure of U.S. troops to chemical weapons during the Persian Gulf War. The CIA refused to talk to Gulf War veterans who have evidence of chemical agent detections and exposures.
The pentagon is still looking into the investigation. They have named the Assistant Secretary of the Navy, Bernard Rostker, as the Gulf Illness czar." Besides all of the technical equipment, the CIA has one unique way of gaining intelligence. It involves the paranormal and is called Operation Stargate. The program was started in the early 1970's. It consists of Psychics.
The psychics predict activity of foreign countries. The program hit its peak in the late 1970 ...
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