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Research paper topic: Quantim Theory - 1022 words
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Quantim Theory Quantim Mechanics is abranch of mathematical physics that deals with the emission and absorption of energy by matter and with the motion of material particles. Because it holds that energy and matter exist in tiny, discrete amounts, quantum mechanics is particularly applicable to Elamentry Pprticlesand the interactions between them. According to the older theories of classical physics, energy is treated solely as a continuous phenomenon and matter is assumed to occupy a very specific region of space and to move in a continuous manner. According to the quantum theory, energy is emitted and absorbed in a small packet, called a quantum (pl. quanta), which in some situations behaves as particles of matter do; particles exhibit certain wavelike properties when in motion and are no longer viewed as localized in a given region but as spread out to some degree.
The quantum theory thus proposes a dual nature for both waves and particles, with one aspect predominating in some situations and the other predominating in other situations. Quantum mechanics is needed to explain many properties of matter, such as the temperature dependence of the specific heat of solids, as well as when very small quantities of matter or energy are involved, as in the interaction of elementary particles and fields, but the theory of Relativity assumes importance in the special situation where very large speeds are involved. Together they form the theoretical basis of modern physics. (The results of classical physics approximate those of quantum mechanics for large scale events and those of relativity when ordinary speeds are involved.) Quantum theory was developed principally over a period of thirty years. The first contribution was the explanation of blackbody radiation in 1900 by Max Planck, who proposed that the energies of any harmonic oscillator, such as the atoms of a blackbody radiator, are restricted to certain values, each of which is an integral (whole number) multiple of a basic minimum value.
Over the years there has been a number of models that were supposed to have been atomicly correct. Right now we are currently useing the Schrodinger model to show the atomic structure of an atom. There also was other models of the atomic structure of an atom but they were wrong. They were wrong because at those times there was not enough tecknoladgy around to ptove other wise. The names of the major noted scientists that had made a model of the atomic structure of an atom, are Bohr, Rutherford, Thompsom, and Schrodinger.
The current atomic theory is that Schrodinger and the other scientists abandoned the idea of precise orbits, and replaced it with a discription regions called orbitals. We have been useing that same theory for almost eighty years now and it looks like we are not going to change it still. Shrodinger's modelwas basically a cloud of sub atomic particles in orbit around a nucleus. The electrons moved in orbit around the nucleus but also moved in tiny orbitals. These orbitals are revolutions around possibly another subatomic particle while in orbit around the nucleus which is holding protons, neutrons, and other sub atomic particles. Another scientist that created a model of the atomic structure of an atom was Rutherford. His model was an model in which the the atom was held together by an electrical attraction between the nucleus and the electrons.
by electrical attraction between the nucleus and the electrons. In this model the electrons travelled in relatively distant orbits around the nucleus. The model eventually proved successful in of chemistry and everyday physics. Subsequent studies of the atom divided into investigations of the electronic parts of the atom, which came to be known as atomic physics, and investigations of the nucleus itself, which came to be known as nuclear physics. His experiment: He studied hydrogen by hitting it with electricity. The electricity would excite an electron anc cause it to jump to higher energy levels. When it fell back down, a photon was given off.
The photon of light corresponded with the amount of energy per energy level. Other scientist also made models that had an impact on the scientific community. One of them is Rutherford. In 1898, Rutherford obtained the physics professorship at McGill University, Montreal. Rutherford proposed an atomic model in which the atom was held together by electrical attraction between the nucleus and the electrons. In this model the electrons travelled in relatively distant orbits around the nucleus. The model eventually proved successful in explaining most of the phenomena of chemistry and everyday physics. Subsequent studies of the atom divided into investigations of the electronic parts of the atom, which came to be known as atomic physics, and investigations of the nucleus itself, which came to be known as nuclear physics.
His experiment: His experiment was that he bumbarded a sheet of gold foil with alpha particles, and discovered that the atom was not a solid mass, but infact is made soly of empty space. Another scientist that made a break through in the current model of the atomic structure of an atom was known as Thompson. In 1895, Thomson discovered the electron. His evidence came from the experiment he did using an apparatus that allowed him to see the glow of the stream of negatively charged particals released when a gas is subjected to intense electrical forces. These particals are known now to be electrons.
It was his experiments that proved that the atom was not an indivisible particle. Instead, it was made up of different particles itself. In 1906, Thomson recieved a nobel prize for his discovories. Thomson's model of an atom was a solid sphere with electrons embedded in the positive part of the atom. The positive part of the atom makes up the bulk of the atom's mass and volume.
It was hypothesized that the positive part of the atom was fluid. John Dalton was a english scientist. He taught mathematics and physical sciences at New College, Manchester. Dalton revived the atomic theory of matter which he applied to a table of atomic weights and used in developing his law of partial pressures. He was color-blind and studied that affliction, also known as Daltonism.
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