Research paper topics, free example research papers
You are welcome to search thousands of free research papers and essays. Search for your research paper topic now!
Research paper topic: Animal Experimentation - 1936 words
NOTE: The research paper or essay you see on this page is a free essay, available to anyone. You can use any paper as a sample on how to write research papers or as a source of information. We strongly discourage you to directly copy/paste any essay and turn it in for credit. If your school uses any plagiarism detecting software, you might be caught and accused of plagiarism. If you need a custom term paper, research paper or essay, written from scratch exclusively for you, please, use our paid research papers writing service!
.. and adults. The only reason man is able to perform these vital operations is because dogs, who are the closest model to humans for this type of procedure at this time, were used for experimentation. By using the canines for experimentation, they have been able to perfect heart surgery in humans (Wil 65). Another benefit humans have had because of animal experimentation is the treatment of familial hypercholestolemia. It was discovered that Watanabe rabbits have a genetic disorder in which they have dangerously high cholesterol levels.
A doctor found this problem on the rabbits' feet, which had yellow "pockets" full of liquid. He soon found out this disorder was similar to the ones in humans called familial hypercholestolemia. If a child has this disease he/she will usually die of a heart attack before his/her teens. Because he found this in these rabbits, he made many breakthroughs in this disorder (Fox 14). Researchers have also carried out tests with drugs, alcohol, and tobacco.
They inject these substances into the animals to see their side effects, how they are addicting, and many more evaluations to further understand how they affect humans. One of the most important reasons we need animal experimentation is because animals are used in training medical students. Medical students are virtually holding the lives of future children in their hands and one can only imagine the setbacks, which would occur if animal rights activists got their way and all animal research was stopped. All hope for uncured diseases would be lost and there would also be no more medical advances. It is needless to say it is dangerous to stop animal testing (19). Animal experimentation is entirely ethical and natural. In fact, there have been forty-one Nobel Prizes awarded to scientists for their achievements that were wholly or in part, due to the use of animals in their research (Dol 64).
Today, there are fewer animals used in labs than ever before. In 1978, the National Research Council of the National Academy of Sciences claimed that the number of animals used for research was half of the amount from ten years before. Due to the raised price on pound animals, there is also a shortage of pound animals that can be used because there is not enough funding. Thus, the number of cats and dogs used is small and they are not used unethically nor wastefully (Dol 79). Robert Phelan, a doctor, said, "We dispose of 200,000 pound animals a week in this country- and their basically just killed and tossed.
Bio-medical research needs one week's worth of those for the entire year, and that's for training paramedics, for training surgeons and nurses, and training medical students" (Phelen 32). Of the twenty-five million dogs and cats born in the U.S. each year, half are impounded. These animals are put to sleep after a couple of weeks if they are not claimed. This is why animal experimentation is ethical and natural (Day 31). Furthermore, experimentation is ethical because standards have been devised and are being met. Animal laboratories have been regulated since 1966 by U.S.
legislation. The Animal Welfare Act of 1966 sets the minimum standards for housing, feeding, watering, and handling lab animals. It also establishes basic levels of sanitation, ventilation, and shelter. In addition, the Animals Act of 1985 requires researchers to consider alternate methods to using animals (Day 29). Because of these acts that were passed, federal committees have been hired to monitor scientists who experiment to make sure they follow the act's requirements. However, some people felt that was not good enough to insure the animal's welfare, so there are now committees, either federal or volunteer, that monitor the committees that monitor the scientists to make sure these committees are doing their jobs (Wil 79).
Besides experimentation being ethically sound, it is a very natural act. Using animals for research has been practiced for more than 2000 years and can be traced back to Aristotle using animals for his first surgical practice (Dol 71). Animal Experimentation is also mentioned in the Bible in the book of Genesis, Then God said, "Let us make man in our likeness, and let them rule over the fish of the sea, and the birds of the air, over the livestock over the earth, and over all the creatures that move along the ground" (Moses 7). Humans are the rulers over the animals and that passage states that it is the rights of humans to use animals to their advantage. Many activists also claim that it is unnatural for any animal to die from repetition of an experiment (Fox 19). What they don't understand is that it is necessary to repeat certain tests to confirm the results of the process so that this certain experiment will never have to be done again (Dol 78). Most research today is completely humane.
Sixty-two percent of the animal subjects do not feel pain and thirty-two percent of the subjects are on enough painkillers or anesthetics to not feel pain. The other six percent do feel pain because either the procedure of the experiment has to do with pain or no anesthetics or painkillers can be used because it will obscure the results. Furthermore, animals that are being researched and tested on are protected by the government to make sure there is no misuse (Day 79). In fact, the main key to making sure animals are treated humanely is the inspection process. In the Yerkes Research Center, for example, there is an expert surveillance team to make sure animals are treated humanely. There are three full-time veterinarians, two vets, whose specialty is in clinical pathology, another vet just for the subject of reproductive biology, one registered nurse, three veterinarian technicians, and over thirty animal care attendants.
It is these people's jobs to make sure the researchers are following the animal welfare laws and regulations. To top it all off, any lab that is federally funded is also monitored. After an experiment is completed, a record of all the procedures, steps, and the treatment of animals is put on file and given to the public for their own surveillance. This is also required due to the Freedom of Information Act (Kin 93). In addition, in a primate research lab, it is practiced policy to keep all research an ethical and scientific concern and all procedures are to be as a matter of routine (90). Before doing any research on a primate, scientists must go through ten tedious questions to make sure they can proceed with the experiment legally.
This is required by the government that the research on any animals to be well designed, medically or scientifically valuable, and conducted humanely (92). Also, many animal rights activists argue that it is inhumane for scientists to kill the animals after an experiment just to make more room or use the animals at their disposal. However, the reason the animal is killed after an experiment is not to dispose of them, but so tissue samples can be obtained to validate the results and to make conclusions. If the animals were spared, the test would be considered a waste because the last step would not be taken (Day 81). Animal rights activists are often considered to be animal rights "terrorists" to many people.
They have struck terror throughout the scientific community. They have been forcing the research labs all over the country to put their much needed funding into security systems to insure that nothing will happen to their labs or that animals will not be stolen. Because of this, federal funding is getting smaller and the commitment to the research of animals in university labs has dwindled (84). One of the main problems for many labs is that they can't advance in their studies of, for example, heart disease because the activists are keeping their hands tied with harassments and lawsuits (Wil 66). In 1990, it was estimated that a total of $10 million was lost in laboratories and research due to animal rights activists (Fox 11). Another problem with animal rights activists is that they are misinformed.
Various animal rights groups have claimed that the U.S. alone uses around 150 million animals for research in a year. They also say a large percent of the animals are used needlessly. However, the U.S. Office of Technology Assessment estimated that only 17-20 million animals are used per year.
What they don't realize is that because of the competition from other labs, the constant monitoring, and the activist groups, they can't afford to waste money on animals for unnecessary research (Wil 78). Another attempt at stopping animal experimentation by the activists is scaring pet owners into taking their side. Activists claim that scientists steal pets and use them for experimenting. Because of these uproars, a survey was taken in ten large cities concerning cases of pets stolen and resold in labs. The survey found there were no incidents that occurred in these cities. As you can see, this wasted the time and money of research laboratories.
Instead of using the money to further research, it was wasted on a survey that was done as a result of propaganda by animal rights groups (67). Jered M. Loeb, a strong supporter of animal experimentation claims, "Through bizarre tactics, extravagant claims, and gruesome myths, animal rights groups have captured the attention of the media and a sizeable segment of the public. Nevertheless, people invariably support the use of animals in research when they understand both sides of the issues and the contributions of animals to [the] relief of human suffering" (Loe 71). Unfortunately, activists are too arrogant to look at the other sides of the issue, and they take their health for granted (Day 77).
Animal experimentation must continue for the sake of mankind. It is absolutely necessary for people to die naturally and not from a disease that could have been cured or treated but was not because of the selfishness of trying to save a goldfish or two .. hundred. In order for mankind to advance, we must make the sacrifice of animals. The cost of twenty animals' lives could save millions of people. With the animal control problem in the pounds of America, there should not be any complaining from activists.
If a dog is going to be destroyed at a pound, why can't it be put to good use for a future investment? It is said that by the year 2030, 90% of the deaths in this world will be from non-communicable diseases. These are diseases like cancer and heart failure. I think if all animal research were to come to a halt, it would only take half that time. It is people like Elizabeth Darrow, a strong supporter and picketer for animal rights, who could possibly stop or slow testing. People like her are kind-hearted but fail to see both sides of an issue and are easily misinformed. With this misinformation, activists will take it and twist it even more by exaggerating a lie. This is the way they win over some of the public.
Practically anyone will support experimentation if the benefits were explained to him or her. If I ever had the chance to accost Darrow, I would ask her what she would do if she were in Holly Anderson's place. If this didn't faze her, I would then ask her what she would do if she were on a boat with her child and her dog and that boat was sinking. If she could only save one of them, what choice would she make? If this question wouldn't change her mind, even slightly, then I would know that her denial is very strong. Furthermore, if she were to choose the dog over her child, I would definitely question her sanity. Political Issues.
Research paper topics, free term papers, essays, sample research papers on Animal Experimentation