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Research paper example essay prompt: And Media Effect - 1265 words
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.. on discovered that female athletes have been underrepresented in the media for quite some time. Studies show that only %15 of coverage in newspapers and %5 of television air time has been given to covering female athletes. (Fink 1998) These experiments and surveys correlate with another experiment conducted by John Steel, "A survey has indicated that around two-thirds of young people base their moral judgements on how a decision made them feel and whether it helped them succeed. Electronic media support these views and increase the importance of self" (Steel 1997). The on-campus experiment contained statistical questions that pertained to situations that people may have learned about on television.
The answers to these questions could easily have been influenced by what was said on television. This theory was known to be true shortly after the results from the survey were collected. In fact, there was not a single question that was answered correctly by even half of the students surveyed, and most of the time, a majority of people gave answers which reflect the images that television portrays. There are many ways that television psychologically affects people through tabloid news and other TV programming. John Hibbing agrees that television can cause a psychological disturbance.
Mass media coverage in the United States affects people's emotional reactions more than their cognitive evaluations of public figures. (Hibbing & Theiss-Morse 1998). If this were to maintain habit throughout the United States, it would take in the form of a progressive stimulant. There'd be no rationalized thoughts. The more we 'd view theses shows the more in apt we'd get to any thought of rationalization. We'd just respond to our feelings.
One way that this is done is through the cognitive dissonance theory. At first one might believe in his own opinion, but after he finds out that a majority of people disagree with him he might change his mind because TV tells us that a majority is always right. Prejudice is another psychological effect that television uses to grab the attention of its viewers. They take advantage of the fact that people have preconceptions and try to influence people on their prejudices. The third effect discussed is informational social influence. This is the biggest effect in that the television programs try to make you believe that everything that is portrayed in their shows is true. Through out the research on media manipulation and deceivement, it was found that many literary sources agreed that tabloid news altered the truth to get more viewers to watch their show and to boost the ratings.
They also manipulate the public by sensationalizing their stories for entertainment purposes. The producers do not care whether or not the story is educational or true just as long as people watch the show. Their main goal is to draw the people in. It does not matter what subject they cover, as long as people are watching. Works Cited Browne, Beverly A.
(1998). Gender stereotypes in advertising on children's television in the 1990's: a cross-national analysis. Journal of Advertising, 27, 83-97. Daschmann, Gregor and Kepplinger, Hans Mathias. (1997). Today's news-tomorrow's context: a dynamic model of news processing. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 41, 548-566. Fink, Janet S. (1998).
Female Athlete's and the media: strides and stalemates. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation and Dance, 69,37-42. Garnson, Joshua. (1997). Gimmicks and props, the world in TV advertising. Journal of Broadcasting, 51, 345-355. Hibbing, John R.
and Elizabeth Theiss-Morse. (1998). The media's role in public negativity toward Congress: Distinguishing emotional reactions and cognitive evaluations. Journal of Political Science, 42, 475-499. Moser, H. Ronald and Wayne E.
Nelson. (1998). How consumers view advertising by optometrists. The Social Science Journal, 35, 445-454. Myers, Mark.
(1997). Theory's and notions behind TV gimmicks. Journal of Science Communication, 31, 124-135. Sanford, Bruce W. (1998). The trumped-up conflict between freedom of the press and the right to a fair trial.
Media Studies Journal, 12, 2-11. Seel, John. (1997). Plugged in, spaced out, and turned on: electronic entertainment and moral minefields. Journal of Education, 179, 17-33. Zoglin, Richard. (1997).
Tabloids and their exploitation in the media. Journal of Media Research, 35, 156-178. American Journal of Political Science, April 1998 v42 n2 p475(24). Title: The media's role in public negativity toward Congress: distinguishing emotional reactions and cognitive evaluations. Author: John R. Hibbing and Elizabeth Theiss-Morse Source: Journal of Education, Fall 1997 v179 n3 p17(16). Title: Plugged in, spaced out, and turned on: electronic entertainment and moral minefields. Author: John Seel Source: Journal of Advertising, Spring 1998 v27 n1 p83(14).
Title: Gender stereotypes in advertising on children's television in the 1990s: a cross-national analysis. Author: Beverly A. Browne Source: International Journal of Advertising, May 1998 v17 n2 p233(21). Title: Perceptions of the media in three different cultures: the US, Australia & Taiwan. Author: Henry C.K.
Chen and Dean Allmon Source: The Social Science Journal, July 1998 v35 n3 p445(9). Title: How consumers view advertising by optometrists. Author: H. Ronald Moser and Wayne E. Nelson Source: Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, Fall 1997 v41 n4 p548(18). Title: Today's news - tomorrow's context: a dynamic model of news processing.
Author: Hans Mathias Kepplinger and Gregor Daschmann Source: Media Studies Journal, Wntr 1998 v12 n1 p2(9). Title: No contest: The trumped-up conflict between freedom of the press and the right to a fair trial. Author: Bruce W. Sanford Source: Journal of Contemporary History, July 1998 v33 n3 p419(31). Title: Television's visual impact on decision-making in the USA, 1968: the Tet Offensive and Chicago's Democratic National Convention. Author: David Culbert Source: Journal of Contemporary History, July 1998 v33 n3 p419(31). Title: Television's visual impact on decision-making in the USA, 1968: the Tet Offensive and Chicago's Democratic National Convention.
Author: David Culbert Source: JOPERD--The Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, August 1998 v69 n6 p37(5). Title: Female athletes and the media: strides and stalemates. Author: Janet S. Fink Television and Media Effect On the Public By: Justin Diamond Psychology 100 Quotes for paper In the last few decades, social norms for behavior, actual roles occupied by men and women, and media regulatory policies have changed.-Browne 83 In order to make advertising effective in different cultures, an understanding of the language, connotations of symbols, media availability and media perceptions of different countries is critical for a media planner of a multinational firm.- Henry C.K. Chen and Dean Allmon 34 Some people will use more news, some will have a more adequate understanding of it and some might remember the contents better, but these differences are due to social factors such as education and status within society, not to character traits arising from individual life experience.- The numerous studies on the reception or the effects of news programs can be placed on an imaginary continuum according to the degree of how actively they define the role of the recipient-Hans Mathias Kepplinger and Gregor Daschmann 549 both A survey has indicated that around two-thirds of young people base their moral judgements on how a decision made them feel and whether it helped them succeed. Electronic media support these views and increase the importance of self.- John Seel 20 The nature of political news as presented by the mass media in the modern United States is such that it affects people's emotional reactions more than their cognitive evaluations of political actors and institutions.- John R.
Hibbing and Elizabeth Theiss-Morse 480 The phrases free press and fair trial are Anglo-American ideals, often presented as if they are at odds with each other.- Since the mid-1980s no decision has addressed the media's First Amendment rights to cover the courts, reflecting a judicial attitude towards the media, bordering on contempt. 5 Studies show that female athletes have long been underrepresented in media, accounting for only 15% of coverage in newspapers and 5% of television air time.- Janet S. Fink 40.
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