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Research paper topic: Philippine Education - 1624 words
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Philippine Education Philippines, republic in the western Pacific Ocean, made up of the Philippine Islands and forming in physical geography a part of the Malay Archipelago. Situated about 1210 km (about 750 mi.) east of the coast of Vietnam, the Philippines is separated from Taiwan on the north by the Bashi Channel. The republic is bounded on the east by the Philippine Sea, on the south by the Celebes Sea, and on the west by the South China Sea. The country comprises about 7100 islands, of which only about 460 are more than 2.6 sq. km (more than 1 sq.
mi.) in area. Eleven islands have an area of more than 2590 sq. km (more than 1000 sq. mi.) each and contain the bulk of the population. These islands are Luzon, Mindanao, Samar, Negros, Palawan, Panay, Mindoro, Leyte, Cebu, Bohol, and Masbate.
The total area of the Philippines is about 300,000 sq. km (about 115,830 sq. mi.). Manila is the capital and largest city of the Philippines. This geographical condition of the Philippines made it very accessible and very easy to penetrate by foreign people.
THE FILIPINO CHARACTER It may be said that the Filipinos are intelligent, with retentive memory, quick perception, and talents for art and science. They also are gentle, friend] y, and cheerful people, noted for their courtesy and hospitality. Filipinos are famous not only for their warm hospitality, but also for their close family ties. The parents work hard and sacrifice much for their children; in return, the children love and respect them and take good care of them in their old age. Filipinos owing to their beautiful country are passionately romantic.
They are ardent in love, as they are fierce in battle. They are born poets, musicians and artists. Filipinos are a liberty-loving and brave people. They valiantly resisted the Spanish, American and Japanese invaders of their native land. They rank among the bravest people of the world. Filipino courage has been proven in the Battle of Mactan (1521), in the Battle of Tirad Pass (1899), in the battle of Bataan, Corregidor, Bessang Pass during World War II, and in many other battlefields. Gratitude is another sterling trait of the Filipinos. They are grateful to those who have granted them favors of who are good to them. Their high sense of gratitude is expressed in the phrase Utang na loob (debt of honor).
Filipinos are cooperative. They value the virtue of helping each other and other people. They cherish the ancestral trait of bayanihan, which means cooperation. In rural areas, when a man is building, repairing or transferring a house to another place, the neighbors come to help him. Foreign writers assert that the Filipinos are indolent.
In reality they work hard in the face of very adverse conditions. They work on the farms from sunrise to sunset, though not from noon to 3 p.m. due to the scorching heat. They work hard in the sugarcane and pineapple plantations in Hawaii, the fruit orchards of California, the fish canneries of Alaska, and in the oil wells of Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, and other Arab countries of the Middle East. Finally, the Filipinos are noted for their durability and resiliency. Through the ages they have met all kinds of calamities--revolts, revolutions, wars, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, typhoons and epidemics.
Unlike the Polynesians of Oceania and the Indians of North Central and South Americas, they did not vanish by contact with the white race. They can assimilate any civilization and thrive in any climate. Against the adversities of life or nature, they merely bend, but never break. They possess the formidable durability of the narra tree and the resiliency of the bamboo. BODY TEXT FILIPINO HISTORY, CULTURE AND HERITAGE EMERGENCE OF THE FILIPINO PEOPLE: Philippine history has often been described as an amalgam of regional developments and outside influences. Excavations in archeological sites have proven that during prehistoric times, the native Negritos came in contact with Malays and Indonesians who left their ancestral home in Southeast Asia by crossing the seas in their sailboats (balangay), and settled the Philippine archipelago.
Inter-racial marriages took place among them and out of these racial mixtures emerged the Filipino people. The early Filipino Malay ancestors brought with them their culture--food and drinks, community life, government and laws, language and literature, religion, customs and traditions and arts and sciences. They left their cultures to their descendants, as the Filipino Malayan inheritance. In the course of the centuries, long before the Spaniards colonized the Philippines in the 16th century; the native Filipinos came in contact (by commerce) with Hindus from India, the Chinese and the Arabs whose civilizations were much older and more advanced than those of Spain and other Western countries. As a result of these early contacts with these great Asian people, the Filipino native culture and way of life (Malayan Heritage) were enriched. The cultural influences of both India and Arabia came indirectly to Philippine shores through Malaysia, while the Chinese cultural influence came direct from China. In subsequent years, the Filipinos intermarried, not only with the Indians, Chinese and Arabians, but also with the Spaniards, the Americans, the Japanese, the British, the French, the Germans, and other peoples of the world.
Today, it may be said that the bloods of the East and the West meet and blend in Filipino veins. It must be noted that during the first two and a half centuries (1565-1828) Spain ruled the country through Mexico. The viceroy of Mexico governed the country in the name of the Spanish king. During this period the famous Manila-Acapulco trade existed. And many Mexicans--colonial officials, missionaries, soldiers, and traders--came to the Philippines. They introduced plants and animals, industries, songs and dances, customs and traditions into the country.
Moreover, many of them married Filipino women. So it came to pass that Filipino acquired a Mexican heritage. After 333 years of Spanish rule, the Americans conquered the country and like Spain, America imposed her culture upon the people. During four decades of U.S. rule (1898-1935), the people acquired the American heritage, which included democracy, popular education, the English language and Protestant Christianity.
Beneath the veneer of Hispanic, Mexican and American heritage, the people, in heart and in spirit, are Asians. They are Asian in race and in geography with an indestructible Asian heritage. The warmth and natural hospitality of the nation's 66,000,000 Filipinos today, is known throughout the world. The 11 cultural, linguistic and racial groups endow the Filipino people with varying customs and traditions. In spite of their diversity, Filipinos have basically two dominant traits: a love of family and a strong religious faith. SUMMARY OF FILIPINO RACIAL ANCESTRY: Filipinos came from a mixture of Asian, European, and American peoples--the Negritos, Indonesians, Malays, Chinese, Indians, Arabs and other Asians; The Spaniards, British and other Europeans; the Mexicans and Americans of South and North America. According to Dr.
H. Otley Beyer, noted American anthropologist, the racial ancestry of Filipinos is as follows: Malay - 40%; Indonesian - 30%; Chinese - 10%, Indian (Hindu) - 5%, European & American - 3%, and Arab - 2%. MOST INFLUENTIAL COLONIZATIONS THE SPANISH OCCUPATION When the Spaniards arrived in the Philippines, the indios (natives) had reached different levels of political development, including simple communal groups, debt peonage (often erroneously described as slavery) and proto-feudal confederations. The Spaniards imposed a feudal system, concentrating populations under their control into towns and estates. During the first two centuries of their occupation, the Spaniards used the Philippines mainly as a connecting point for their China-Acapulco (Mexico) trade.
The country's economic backwardness was reinforced by Roman Catholicism, which was practiced in a form that retained many pre-colonial elements such as animism while incorporating feudal aspects of the colonizers' religion such as dogmatism, authoritarianism and patriarchial oppression. The Spaniards were never able to consolidate political control over the entire archipelago, with Muslims and indigenous resisting the colonizers most effectively. Among the groups that were subjugated, there were numerous localized revolts throughout the Spanish occupation. In the 19th century, the Philippines was opened to world trade, allowing the limited entry of liberal ideas. By the late 19th century, there was a distinct Filipino nationalist movement that erupted into a revolution in 1896, culminating with the establishment of Asia's first republican government in 1898.
Spain laid the foundation for a feudal health care system. The religious orders built charity hospitals, often next to churches, dispensing services to the indio. Medical education was not extended to the indio until late in the 19th century, through the University of Santo Tomas. This feudal system of the rich extending charity to the poor persists to this day among many church-run as well as non-sectarian institutions. THE U.S.
OCCUPATION (1898-1946) The first Philippine Republic was short-lived. Spain had lost a war with the United States. The Philippines was illegally ceded to the United States at the Treaty of Paris for US$20 million, together with Cuba and Puerto Rico. A Filipino-American War broke out as the United States attempted to establish control over the islands. The war lasted for more than 10 years, resulting in the death of more than 600,000 Filipinos.
The little-known war has been described by historians as the "first Vietnam", where US troops first used tactics such as strategic hamleting and scorched -earth policy to "pacify" the natives. The United States established an economic system giving the colonizers full rights to the country's resources. The Spanish feudal system was not dismantled; in fact, through the system of land registration that favored the upper Filipino classes, tenancy became more widespread during the US occupation. A native elite, including physicians trained in the United States, was groomed to manage the economic and political system of the country. The U.S.
also introduced western models of educational and health-care systems that reinforced elitism and a colonial mentality that persists to this day, mixed with th ...
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