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Alexander The Great Alexander III, more commonly known as Alexander the Great, was one of the greatest military leaders in world history. He was born in Pella, Macedonia, then a Greek nation. The exact date of his birth is uncertain, but was probably either July 20 or 26, 356 B.C. Alexander was considered a child from his birth until 341 B.C. His princehood lasted from 340 to 336 B.C.

In 336 B.C. Philip II, his father, was assassinated, thus making Alexander king. Alexander became a military leader in 335, and remained one until his death in 323 B.C. He reigned from 336 B.C. until 323 B.C., when he died.

His military campaign in Persia lasted from 334 to 329, and in 328 he began his campaign in India and Bactria, which lasted until 326. Alexander was only 20 years old when his father died in early 336 B.C. and he took over, ruling for 12 years and eight months. Alexander was fair skinned and fair haired. He was not very tall, but had outstanding speed and stamina. He was a dedicated soldier, but didnt care for sports.

The only sport he really liked was hunting. Alexander was the eldest son of Philip II and Olympias. Like Alexander, Philip II was a great general. Olympias and Philip, when Philip was not away on a campaign, constantly fought. His father was away often, and so much of his childhood influences came from his mother, although his father taught him many useful things about war.

Because of his mothers heritage, Alexander could truthfully claim relation to two Trojan War heroes, Achilles and, indirectly, Hector. Philip II taught him he was descended from Hercules, which was not true. The historian Callisthenes started an untrue rumor that Alexander was the son of Zeus. Alexander had seven wives and a male lover. In 327 B.C.

he married Roxanne, his main wife, so to speak. Roxanne was a Persian, and by the time he married her, Alexander had total control of Persia and was doing his campaigns in India and Bactria. Roxanne later became pregnant with a child, but when Alexander died it had not yet been born. *center*Alexanders Childhood When Alexander was either 13 or 14(different sources gave different ages), Alexander became the pupil of the great philosopher Aristotle. Aristotle taught Alexander grammar, literature, especially Homer, politics, the natural sciences, and rhetoric(the art of using words well and effectively).

Aristotle inspired Alexander with a love for literature. He came to know and like the Greek styles of living. Greeces ideals of civilization impressed him, and took part in sports and daily exercises to develop a strong body. Alexander had another teacher, Leonidas, whom was hired by Philip II to train and discipline Alexanders body. Leonidas sent Alexander on frequent all night marches and rationed his food. Alexanders schooling with his two teachers continued until he was 16 years old. When Alexander was 16, his father went away to a military campaign.

He left Alexander temporarily in charge of his kingdom. While Philip II was away, the people of Thrace started a rebellion. Alexander found out about this rebellion, and crushed it. This rather impressed Philip II, and he let Alexander settle his first town, Alexandropolis. This city, as is probably quite self-evident, was named for Alexander. In Greek, "polis" means city, so this means "Alexander city".

At this age, Alexander also had an interest in medicine. He even prescribed medicine to some of his friends. The Story of Bucephales When Alexander was either 11 or 12 or 14(there are differing accounts), he went with his father and his fathers company while they went to buy a horse. After a while, Philip saw a horse that he wanted. He soon saw that it was very mean and wild, so he decided against buying it.

When Alexander learned of this decision, he said to his father,"What a horse they are losing, and all because they do not know how to handle it, or dare not try." To this Philip II responded,"Are you finding fault with your elders because you think you know more than they do, or can manage a horse better?" "At least I can manage this one better,"Alexander replied. Alexander then decided to show the company he could calm this horse. He approached the horse and calmed it. Once the horse seemed to be calm enough, Alexander mounted it and galloped around the field. The company applauds, and Philip II weeps for joy.

When Alexander dismounted, Philip II kissed him. He told his son,"My boy, you must find a kingdom big enough for your ambitions. Macedonia is too small for you." Alexander named this horse Bucephales, meaning"ox head" in Greek. He rode Bucephales throughout his youth and later in his campaigns in Persia. Finally, in the Battle of Jhelum, Bucephales suffered a wound.

He later died from it. Alexander's Rise to Power In early 336 B.C., Philip II was assassinated at his daughter's wedding feast. The assassin was an aggrieved Macedonian nobleman, who was slain as he tried to escape. The official verdict on Philip's assassination claimed the assassin had been bribed by Darius, the king of the Persian empire. However, Alexander and his mother were suspected by many because they had recently fallen from royal favor. This was not mentioned in the verdict, and it is still unknown which suspicion is correct.

When Philip II died, Alexander found his new empire in disorder. He had enemies all over, in home and abroad. Many people were dissatisfied and so they threatened rebellion. To solve this problem, Alexander killed everyone posing a threat. This included his younger half-brother, but not his older one.

Much was fixed, although perhaps not in a satisfactory way. In late summer that year, Alexander was confirmed as the Captain-General of the campaign in Persia as well as becoming the Captain-General of the League of Corinth. These two positions were good for Alexander because they provided him with many more soldiers for his campaign in Persia. General Information on Alexander's Army and Conquests Athens versus Philip II in Elatea Late one September evening, before the Battle of Chaeronea, an Athenian assembly heard that Philip II had occupied Elatea. They were rather nervous, and not without reason. Elatea was a key point on the road to Thebes and Attica, two of Athen's allies. Because of this information, the Athenian army marched into Boeotia, which neighbored Elatea. Athen's and Boeotia, two new allies, fortified the north-west passage into central Greece.

10,000 mercenaries were dispatched to cover the road to Amphissia. Despite its efforts, Athens was still defeated. Basic Information on Alexander's Army Alexander had army men from every province under his control or allied with him. One of his generals was Ptolemy, who was one of the best generals in Alexander's campaigns in Asia and India. He was believed to have been related to the royal family.

Alexander was an expert at organizing his units for complex battle maneuvers, hiding his true numbers and true make-up of his army, and managing his army. Alexander's position as a military leader changed throughout his conquests. He started out as a crusader, trying to have revenge for the destruction of Greece's precious buildings. He ended up with the goal of expanding his empire and the knowledge and practice of Hellenic culture throughout it. Alexander's army started out with army men from Macedonians, Thessalians, Thracians, Athenians, and those from just about every other Greek city-states. He already had these provinces in his realm, and this was what he brought into Persia. Unlike most rulers, Alexander joined his men in battle and led in attacks.

Since he was the Captain-General of the League of Corinth he had many more soldiers than he would have had otherwise. Some of Alexander's Conquests in Short In Autumn 337 B.C. there was a meeting of the League of Corinth. There Alexander's crusade against Persia was ratified. This made Alexander's campaign in Persia much easier than if the League had chosen otherwise.

When Alexander was 21 he marched into Thebes. He made the journey of about 240 miles in 13 days. There he defeated the Thracians in his first major battle. During this battle, 6,000 Thracians defending Thebes died. The remaining 30,000 were sold into slavery.

In early spring 335 B.C. Alexander went north to deal with political problems in Thrace and Illyria. That year he also crushed the revolt of Thebes. The next year, 334 B.C., he put under siege and later captured Miletus. He then put Halicarnassus under siege, which is put in more detail later.

Next, Alexander got through Lycia and Pamphylia. That year he also attacked and conquered the Greek occupied In 333 B.C., first he and his army, marching in columns, went north to Celaenae and then marched to Ancyra. He then moved south to the Cilician Gates. While he was doing this, Darius went westward from Babylon. Then Alexander reaches Taurus, where there is a halt because he then fell ill.

Once his ailment was cured, Alexander advanced with his army southward through Phoenicia. In this year, Memnon died, the Persian forces in Babylon were mustered, and Alexander reached Gordium where he sliced the Gordian Knot. This is put in more detail later. In January 332 B.C., Byblos and Sidon submitted themselves to Alexander's rule. In September or October that same year, he reached Thapsacus on the Euphrates. During this, Darius moved his main forces from Babylon. On September 18, 331 B.C., he crossed the Tigris.

In early June 330 B.C. Alexander set out for Ecbatana. Darius then renewed his march toward Bactria that had been halted temporarily. Soon after Darius did this, Alexander reached Ecbatana and dismissed the Greek allies and left Parmenio behind. He made Harpalus Treasurer of Ecbatana. Then he began his march to Hyrcania, and marched through Arachosia to Parpamisidae.

In 330 B.C., Alexander also renewed his pursuit of Darius via the Caspian Gates. In July, he found Darius murdered near Hecatomplyus, where he was apparently murdered by his own men. When he found out about this, Bessus declared himself king of the Persian Empire, or "Great King". In 329 B.C., Alexander crossed the Hindu Kush via the Khawak Pass. During April and May that year, he advanced to Bactria.

That year, Bessus retreated across the Oxus. He then reached and crossed it in June, and from there he advanced to Maracande. This was also the year in which Alexander finished conquering Persia. When he had accomplished this, Alexander has been reported to have said,"So this is what it is like to be an emperor." In 328 B.C., Alexander had his campaign against Spitamenes. Then Cletus the Black was murdered.

Later that year, he defeated and killed Spitamenes. The following year, he reached Nysa and captured the Soghdian rock. This year Alexander's conquests of India ended. The year after that, 326 B.C., Alexander was badly wounded during his campaign against the Brahman cities(high-caste Indian cities). That year he also conquered most of the remaining part of Pakistan, India, and Iran.

The end of his conquests were coming near. In 325 B.C. Alexander's army suffered the loss of 3,000 mercenaries. In Bactria, the people revolted against him and it was necessary for Alexander to intervene unless he wanted to loose Bactria. After that, Alexander returned to Persepolis and then moved to Susa, where there was a long halt. He renewed his march in September, going through the Gedrostan Desert.

In January 324 B.C., Nearchus and his fleet went to Susa. They then moved to Ecbatana. Alexander conquered many countries. Some of the cities he had to conquer (they did not submit themselves to Alexander's rule peacefully and/or were not acquired by Alexander because another city was) in the Asia Minor were(in order):Halicarnassus, Syria, Tyre, Gaza, Egypt, Guagamela, Babylon, Susa, Persepolis, Media, Arachosia, Bactria, and Sogdiana. Alexander had a huge empire.

In the Mediterranean, Alexander had parts if not all of Bulgaria, Greece, and Macedonia. In the Middle East, he had parts or all of Iraq, Iran, Egypt, Israel, and Lebanon. In Asia Minor, Alexander held parts or all of Turkey, Afghanistan, and Armenia. In Asia, he ruled parts or all of India and Pakistan. He also ruled small parts of Albania, Libya, and Russia.

Darius made three peace deals with Alexander throughout Alexander's campaign in Persia. The first was in 333 B.C., the second in June 332 B.C., and the third in 331 B.C. The third was offered shortly after Alexander had conquered Tyre. In this offer, Darius offered Alexander a daughter in marriage, 10,000 talents worth of gold, and all of his territory west of the Euphrates. Today, 10,000 talents of gold is worth about three-hundred million dollars.

The amount of territory Alexander was offered was about one-third of Darius' empire. It required, however, that Alexander leave Persia at peace and ally with Darius. Alexander's general Paremonian advised Alexander to agree to this. Alexander, however, was in no mood to cancel his campaign in Persia. To Paremonian's suggestion he replied,"I would accept them, but only if I were Paremonian." The Battle of Chaeronea Background on the Battle The battle of Chaeronea was the first major battle Alexander fought in. It took place on August 4, 338 B.C., during Philip II's rule. Philip and his army was fighting against the allied Thebes, Athens, Megara, Corinth, and Achaia, in the city of Piraeus. The most important of the five Allies were Athens and Thebes.

The Allies made sure that their mercenaries and part of the regular army blocked both possible lines of attack. The allied right flank was comprised of mainly Thebans. They were 12,000 strong. They were led by the Sacred Band, the Theban king's best soldiers, at 300 strong. The left side was made up of mostly Athenians, who were, at that time, 10,000 strong.

Everyone else was in the center. Philip II commanded the Macedonian right flank. The right flank slightly outflanked the Allies' right.Their left flank, which had heavy cavalry, was commanded by Alexander, at this time only 18 years old. This was an extraordinary responsibility for someone his age because he was the one that had to deliver the knock-out blow that would determine whether the Macedonians won this battle or lost it. Philip's center and left were back at an angle from the Allied line. What Happened in the Battle At the beginning of the battle, Philip and his guards brigade engaged the Athenians, while the rest of the Macedonian army advanced. At this time, the Athenians launched a wildly enthusiastic charge.

Their general lost his head, not literally yet, and said,"Come on, let's drive them back to Macedonia!" Such amount of enthusiasm usually makes the warriors reckless, and it is difficult to win the battle with it. The Greek center soon began to spread out perilously, and there became many gaps between the army men. Upon seeing this, the Macedonians backed up onto the bank of a small stream, which made a gap between the center and right open. Then Alexander, at the head of Macedonia's best cavalry, drove a wedge into the heart of the Theban ranks. While he did this, a second brigade attacked the Sacred Band. The attack did its job, and soon the Thebans were surrounded.

During this, Philip remained on the right. He halted his retreat up the river bank and launched a down-hill counter-charge. His phalanx finished what Alexander's cavalry had started by pouring through the broken lines, and engaged the allied Greek center at the front and flank simultaneously. The two sides had a severe struggle, after which the entire army of the Allies broke and fled except for the Sacred Band, who planned to and did fight until the end. But Philip II came out of the battle victorious.

After the Battle After Philip's victory, 46 members of the 300 strong Sacred Band were taken alive. The other 254 died. The dead were buried around where they had died, in seven soldierly rows, near where Zion of Chaeronea was soon to be put. When he had won the battle, Philip called off the cavalry pursuit of the Allies. He then raised a victory trophy and made sacrifices to the gods.

A number of men were decorated for conspicuous gallantry. Even after Philip II's victory, the Athenian armed slaves and residents were ready to defend their city to their death. Philip remained victorious, though. The Athenian naval fleet remained intact, but offered little resistance after learning of Philip's victory. Philip gained things other than territory from his victory in Piraeus. He controlled the Athenian naval fleet if the need for it ever arose.

He also got the harbor and arsenals of Piraeus. To some in his newly acquired territory, Philip II was reasonably kind to. He let Piraeus' inhabitants maintain supplies and communication by sea indefinitely if they decided to. He also let the Thebans raise a great monument near where the Sacred Band's soldiers were buried in memory of them called the Zion of Chaeronea. Philip let them do this because, being a soldier himself, he appreciated truly valorous opponents. He refrained from imposing garrisons on most of the leading Greek cities. Philip would give up the Athenian dead.

He had 2,000 Athenian prisoners, who would all be released without ransom. He guaranteed not to send troops into Attica or warships to Piraeus. Athens would remain the governmental nucleus of the Aegan islands, included Delos and Samos. However, Philip could be harsh at times, too. He gave told the Athenians that they had to do two things for Macedonia.

One of these was to help Macedonia with all other territorial claims. The other was it must dissolve the Athenian Maritime League. Athens' government accepted these conditions en bloc(meaning altogether). They were not in a position to object to these;any privilege Philip II gave him then were just an arbitrary favor, which was reversible if Philip wanted to. Philip was cruel to others, too.

He abolished the Boeotian League. This was the embryo of the Theban empire. Philip was kind to these cities, however, when he gave all the cities belonging to the Boeotian League their independance back, which was shrewd diplomacy for him. He also forced the Thebans to recall all political exiles, and then set up a puppet government, with Macedonians watching over it from the Cadnea. Unlike their Athenian counterparts, the Theban prisoners had to be ransomed at a good price.

If they were not, they would be sold as slaves. The Battle of Granicus Background Information on the Battle Granicus was the first major battle during Alexander's rule. It was also the first battle in Persia. It took place in May 334 B.C. Alexander lead his troops while the Persians were lead by Arsites, one of Darius' generals.

Darius was the king of the Persian empire. Alexander only slightly outnumbered the Persians at the time of this battle. His ground forces overwhelmingly outnumbered the Persians';the Persians had 30,000 overall ground force while Alexander had 43,000 infantry alone. However, the Persians had 15,000-16,000 cavalry, where as Alexander only had 6,000-7,000. It also must be taken into account that Darius' navy, which was Phoenician, was nearly three times larger than Alexander's and much more efficient. Before the Battle During a site-seeing trip on the way to Granicus, Alexander was asked if he would like to inspect Paris' lyre. Alexander refused curtly.

He said that all Paris played on the instrument were,"adulterous ditties to captivate and bewitch the hearts of women". He then added,"But I would gladly see that of Achilles, to which he used to sing the glorious deeds of brave men." In this battle, Alexander's position had similarities to that of two other military men. He was in a way like Achilles, sailing again for battle. But he also was like the Captain-General of the Hellenes, trying to get vegenance on Xerxe's invasion of Greece(he was mad at the Persians for burning many of Greece's great cities a long time ago). An important thing on the way to the site of this battle was to cross the Narrows. He crossed them at the same point as the Athenians had in the Trojan War.

The Persians offered no opposition when he did this. He then made the 300 mile march to Sestos in 20 days, a remarkably short time for an entire army. Next, with 6,000 men, he went over land to Elaeum, which is at the southern tip of the Galipoli Peninsula. There he sacrificed before the tomb of Protesilaus. Protesilaus was the first Greek in Agememnon's army to step ashore at Troy. In the tomb he prayed that his landing on Asiatic soil would be better than Protesilaus'.

This prayer was not without reason;Protesilaus had been killed almost immediately, and like Protesilaus, Alexander planned to be the first on shore. After making this prayer, he built an altar at the tomb and invoked the gods for victory. Once this was done, Alexander crossed the Darndelles in the 60 vessels Parmenio had sent down from Sestos. Alexander steered the Admiral's flagship. When the ships were halfway across the river the squadrons sacrificed a bull to Poseidon and made libation with a golden vessel, just as Xerxes had done when he crossed it.

He landed on the "Achen Harbor". This is possibly present-day Rhoeteum. There he set up an alter to Athena, Hercules, and Zeus, in thanks for a safe landing. Here he prayed that"these territories might accept me as king of their own free will, without constraint". Once he had done this, Alexander set off for Ilium. Once at Ilium, he was welcomed by a committee of local Greeks who presented him with a ceremonial gold wreath.

He then offered a sacrifice at the tomb of Ajax and Achilles. Next he made an offering at the sacred hearth of Zeus of Enclosures. Legend has it that it was here that Alexander's ancestor Neoptolemus had slain Priam. From Ilium Alexander moved north again and rejoined his army at Arisbe, a little out of the city of Abyos. From there he and his army marched north-east, following the road to Dascylium, where the Phyrgian satrap(sort of a Persian governor)had his seat of government. The first city Alexander and his army reached was Pericte, a city in Macedonia's control.

But they soon reached Lampsacus. This was controlled by Memnon like a lot of other cities in Asia Minor. There the philosopher Anaxenes, who was acting as Lampsacus' official envoy, persuaded Alexander to bypass Lampsacus. Alexander had an extreme shortage of money, with only enough pay to last a fortnight and food to last a month. Considering these conditions, it is most likely that Anaxenes bribed Alexander with a large sum of money. Because of these conditions, Alexander's only hope was to tempt the Persians into a set battle and inflict a crushing defeat. Arsites, the governor of Hellespontine Phyrga, sent out an appeal for help from his fellow governors.

He wanted to meet with Arsamenes of Cilician and Spithridates of Lydia and Ionia. The three governors set up their base camp at Zeleia, east of the River Granicus. Here they summoned their commanders to a council of war to decide what strategy to use against Alexander. Memnon of Rhodes, a mercenary, put forth the best suggestion. He proposed a scorched-earth policy--destroy all crops, strip the countryside, if they had to, burn down towns and villages. When he proposed this plan, Memnon made it clear that it would force the Macedonians to withdraw for lack of provisions.

While this was happening, the Persians would assemble a large fleet and carry the war into Macedonia while the Macedonian army was still divided over what to do. This was great advise, but since it came from a mercenary, whose brilliance and plain speaking was not respected by his Persian colleagues, it was not paid due attention. However, a little more tact still might have gotten Memnon all he wanted. But he went on to say that they should avoid fighting a pitched battle because the Macedonian infantry was very superior to Persia's. This hurt the Persians' dignity, and so they rejected Memnon's plan. Since Memnon's plan was rejected, the Persians had to choose a new strategy. They decided to take a defensive strategy.

This was probably second only to Memnon's plan because if the Macedonians could be lured into attacking a strongly held position over dangerous ground where the cavalry would have trouble charging and the phalanx couldn't hold formation, the invasion would end quickly. The Persians' rejection of Memnon's plan was good for Alexander, but the Persians still had an advantage over Alexander. This was that the Persians had a choice of terrain. Once the Persians realized how badly needed battle they realized they could bring him to battle wherever and whenever they pleased. The Persians collected all available reinforcements to prepare for the coming battle. Then they advanced to the River Granicus on the eastern bank, which had the best conditions for the Persian strategy. This spot on the river was good for the Persians because the Macedonian army would have to cross it to get to Dascylium(a spot on the river Alexander would need to get to to continue his conquests). It would be hard for him to cross the River because of its speed and depth.

The Macedonians would have to cross in columns, and while the Macedonians were struggling on the bank in general disorder, they'd be highly vulnerable, and the Persians could force an engagement. Once they were at the River Granicus, the Persians drew up forces and waited. You might remember that the Persians had far less ground forces than Alexander. Because of this, Arsites had to avoid exposing his interior infantry to open ground. For Arsites to win, he had to have a skillful use of cavalry and mercenaries.

When he they reached the River Granicus, Alexander wanted to fight. But Parmenio knew the Persians had set up a death trap. Parmenio did his best to reason with Alexander, and Alexander had to agree. So, under the cover of darkness, he and his army marched downstream until they found a suitable place to ford. Here they bivouacked, and began crossing at dawn. What Happened in the Battle When they found out that the Macedonians were fording, Arsites' scouts sounded the alarm.

Several regiments of cavalry galloped down, trying to catch the Macedonians at a disadvantage. But by the time they got to the place Alexander had chosen to ford, there were not many Macedonians left on the western bank. When they saw Arsites' scouts, the Macedonian phalanx formed to cover their comrades still in the river. Meanwhile, Alexander led his cavalry in a swift, outflanking charge. The Persians wisely retreated. Once they had, Alexander got the rest of his columns across, and then deployed them in battle formation. The terrain was rich, rolling land, which was perfect for cavalry.

This was good for the Persians because they had so much more cavalry than Alexander. Arsites put all of his cavalry regiments into front line, on as wide a front as possible. His entire infantry was held in reserve. He then advanced to Alexander's position. Alexander was clad in magnificent armor he had taken from the Temple of Athena at Ilium. His shield was blazoned splendidly, and wore an extraordinary helmet with two great wings or plumes. A crowd of pages and staff officers thronged around him.

Alexander took the battle on the right flank. When they saw this, the Persians transferred some of their best troops to the center. This was just what Alexander wanted. With trumpets blowing and echoes of the "Alalalalai"battle cry, Alexander charged, leading his cavalry in wedge formation. He feinted at the enemy's left, where Memnon and Arsames were waiting.

Then he suddenly swung his wedge inwards, diving at the new weakened Persian center. On the first onslaught, Alexander's spear broke, so the old Demaratus of Corinth gave him his. While this was happening, Parmenio always was on the Persian left. He was fighting a holding action against the Medes and Bactrians on Alexander's right. Alexander made a classic "pivot"attack, using his left flank as his axis. So what he did was, keeping his left flank stationary, he swung his right and center around it, so that now the center remained the center, but the left was the right and the right was the left.

Mathrilas, Darius' son-in-law, counter-charged at the head of his own Iranian cavalry division with 40 high ranking Persian nobles. He began to drive a similar wedge into the Macedonian center. After this, the Persian general Mithridates hurled a javelin at Alexander. He threw it with such force that it didn't just blow through Alexander's shield but hit the cuiraso behind it. Alexander then plucked it out and sent spurs to his horse.

He then drove his own spear far into Mithridates' breastplate. But Mithridates' breastplate did not break, and Alexander's spear broke of short. Mithridates then drew out his sword for hand-to-hand fighting. Alexander, however, was not about to do that. Alexander retrieved his broken spear and jabbed it into Mithridates' face, hurling him to the ground. As this happened, Rhosaces(a Persian) came at him from behind. He rode at Alexander from a flank with his saber with such force that it went through Alexander's helmet to the bone of his scalp. Alexander, swaying and dizzy, managed to kill Rhosaces. Meanwhile, Spithridates, the governor of Lydia and Ionia, moved in behind Alexander.

He was about to kill him when Cletus, Alexander's nurse's brother, severed Spithridates' arm at his shoulder. After this, Alexander, probably from his scalp injury, half-fainted. While Alexander was in the half-faint, his phalanx poured through a gap in the Persian center, and had started to get rid of Arsites' native infantry. Alexander managed to struggle back onto his horse, and his companions rallied around him. During this, the enemy center began to cave in, leaving their flanks exposed. Then Parmenio's Thessalian cavalry charged on the left. In a moment, the entire Persian line broke and fled. Their infantry, except the mercenaries, offered little resistance.

The only part of the Persian army that was left was Memnon and his men. The Macedonians focused on destroying them. While the Macedonian phalanx delivered a frontal assault, his cavalry hemmed them from all sides to prevent a massive breakout. Somehow, however, Memnon managed to escape. This ended the battle.

The Persians suffered far greater casualties than the Macedonians. The Persians lost 2,500 men total, some 1,000 of them Iranians. There were different amounts of casualties reported for Alexander. The maximum for the infantry was 30, and the minimum nine. For the cavalry, the maximum was ...

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