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Research paper topic: International Studies H - 1693 words
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.. Sadat took the initiative and in November 1977 made a ground-breaking visit to Israel. After long negotiations under the watchful and persuasive aegis of the United States, Israel and Egypt signed a peace agreement, the culmination of face-to-face talks in 1979 in the American presidential retreat of Camp David. The deal was land for peace. Egypt gradually received back the Sinai, taking full control in 1982.
In return, Israel had a lasting peace with what until then had been its most significant Arab enemy.10 Prime Minister Begin and Sadat shared a Nobel Peace Prize for their agreement. The relationship between Egypt and Israel improved noticeably, but deteriorated between Israel and other Middle-East nations.10 Due to the Camp David agreement, the Arab community decide to exile Egypt for a period of eight years. Many Egyptians and Arabs in general are incensed for the Camp David Agreement and in 1981, President Anwar Sadat was assassinated.11 Invasion of Lebanon From 1978 the presence of Palestinian guerrillas in Lebanon led to Arab raids on Israel and Israeli retaliatory incursions , but on June 6, 1982 Israel launched a full-scale invasion . Israel invades Lebanon with the aim of destroying the Palestine Liberation Organization. The reason for the invasion are as follows: 1.
The PLO is responsible for the murder of Israeli athletes at the Munich Olympic Games. 2. The PLO is responsible for the hijacking at Entebbe, and the hijacking and killing of passengers of the Achille Lauro. Talks between Israel and Lebanon, between December 1982 and May 1983, resulted in an agreement , drawn up by US secretary of state George Shultz, calling for the withdrawal of all foreign forces from Lebanon within three months. Syria refused to acknowledge the agreement , and left some 30,000 troops, with about 7,000 PLO member in the northeast. Israel retaliated by refusing to withdraw its forces from the south.12 * * * Relations between Israel and the Palestinians entered a new phase in the late 1980's with the intifada, a series of uprisings in the occupied territories that included demonstrations, strikes, and rock-throwing attacks on Israeli soldiers and civilians.
The harsh response by the Israeli government drew criticism from both the United States and the UN.6 The Madrid Conference Before the Madrid Conference of 1991, only Egypt had accepted Israel's offer to negotiate face-to-face. In May 1989, Israel presented a new peace initiative to the Middle East. The collapse of the Soviet Union and the Gulf War produced a change in the basic political order of the Middle East, prompting the Arab world to reassess its attitude toward Israel and to enter into negotiations to consolidate a future for the Middle East. In October 1991, a conference was convened in Madrid, Spain to under take direct peace talks. The conference was designed to serve as an opening forum for all the participants, having no power to impose solutions or veto agreements.13 The forum set up bilateral tracks which are meant to resolve the conflicts of the past, and multilateral tracks, which are meant to build the Middle East of the future, which building confidence among the regional parties. The negotiations between Israel and Palestinians are specifically based on a two separate formula: A five year interim self government arrangement, to be followed by negotiations on the permanent status issues.
It has been eight years since the Madrid Conference.13 The peace process has dramatically changed the way of the Israelis and Arabs relate to one another. Compromises, negotiations, and extensive communication are changing people's attitudes and away from open warfare and stubborn hostility. As time passes, the world can see the tangible fruits of peace, both economic and political between Israeli and Palestinians. Events in the Middle East took a surprising turn in 1993. After secret negotiations, Prime Minister Rabin and PLO Chairman Yasir Arafat flew to Washington, D.C., and agreed to the signing of a historic peace agreement.
Israel agreed to allow for Palestinian self-rule, first in the Gaza Strip and the West Bank town of Jericho, and later in other areas of the West Bank. In early 1994, negotiations for self-rule were temporarily derailed after a Jewish settler massacred at least 29 Palestinian Arabs at a mosque in Hebron, in the West Bank. In May 1994, Israeli troops withdrew from Jericho and the towns and refugee camps of the Gaza Strip, and the areas came under Palestinian control.14 In July 1994 Prime Minister Rabin and King Hussein of Jordan signed a peace agreement ending 46 years of war and strained relations. The agreement, which was signed at the White House in the presence of U.S. President Bill Clinton, laid the groundwork for the full peace treaty signed by Rabin and Jordanian Prime Minister Abdul-Salam al-Majali in October 1994. Under the terms of treaty, the two countries resolved their longstanding dispute over land and water rights; Israel agreed to return about 350 sq km (about 135 sq mi) of disputed territory and to avail Jordan of an annual supply of water.7 The two governments also agreed to cooperate in areas including trade, tourism, transportation, environmental protection, and economic development.8 Jordan pledged that it would not allow its land to be used for anti-Israel purposes, and Israel recognized Jordan's claims to Islamic shrines in Jerusalem. The latter angered Palestinians, many of whom denounced the treaty as an infringement on the PLO's agreement with Israel, which called for Israeli-Palestinian negotiation on the final status of Jerusalem.
To recognize the efforts of the leaders of Middle East for their quest for peace, Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin, Foreign Minister Shimon Peres and PLO Chairman Yasser Arafat were awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for 1994. * * * On November 4, 1995, Prime Minister Rabin was slaim by the bullets of an assassin while attending a peace rally in Tel Aviv. Leaders from almost 80 countries came to Jerusalem to pay tribute to his memory and to express support for Israel and the peace process. Israel remains committed to the last Prime Minister Rabin's legacy of the quest for peace; for peace is the key to the future. The successful implementation of the Peace Treaty between Israel and Jordan and the continuing implementation of the agreement with the Palestinians testify to the viability of this process.
Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu stated: I would like to call on the Palestinians and the Arabs states not to miss this opportunity. Violence and the threat of violence can only multiply the misery. Compromise and cooperation can turn this part of the world into a true promised land. Let us work together so that our children and grandchildren will compete not on the battlefield but on computers. Let us work together so that this region, which gave the world its three great monotheistic religions, will also give it the hope of permanent peace, stability, prosperity and brotherhood. Wye River Conference From October 15th to the 24th last year, Clinton's negotiating team sat down with Yassir Arafat, the Palestinian Liberation Organization leader and Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Natanyahu at Maryland.
The Wye Agreement was called for: 1. Israel had agreed to an American compromise proposal aimed at breaking a 19-month deadlock over interim Israeli troop withdrawals from the West Bank. Under the U.S. plan. 2. Israel would turn over an additional 13 percent of West Bank land, of which 3 percent would be a nature preserve that barred construction.
An additional 14.2 percent will pass under full Palestinian control. That would bring roughly 40 percent of the territory under full or partial Palestinian control. 3. Arafat will also get an economic circulatory system: a two-year-old airport in Gaza will be allowed to open and Israel will establish two safe passage corridors between the West Bank and Gaza.14 The talks were intense, a marathon of violent mood swings and numbing restatements of position. They were scheduled to last four days, and went more than twice that long.
The 60 core negotiators--20 per side--had been there for a week, and were plainly sick of each other. Two of the most often-heard refrains, recounts one negotiator, were I can't do it, and I won't do it. The night before, the Israelis had threatened to walk out, and Clinton had told his team, It's now or never. We're going to get an agreement today, or we're not going to get an agreement.15 When it all seems hopeless, Clinton marshaled a secret weapon, King Hussein. For the second time in a week, the ailing monarch had flown to Maryland. He was driven to Wye, where he issued what Clinton later called a stern instruction.
Hussein reminded them all of the larger purpose of what they were doing, recalls a senior U.S. official. 'You can't afford for this to fail, you owe this to future generations, you owe this to your children.' You could hear a pin drop. That lifted people up, and gave everybody some impetus--which lasted for an hour or so.14 When the agreement is finally signed, the world praises Bill Clinton for the spectacular performance and outcome of this productive summit. A tremulous Yasir Arafat called the president a great leader of the world.
Clinton is a warrior for peace, gushed Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu, hours after the U.S. president successfully called his bluff over a last-minute demand for release of imprisoned spy Jonathan Pollard. I mean, he doesn't stop, Netanyahu said. He has this ability to maintain a tireless pace and to nudge and prod and suggest.15 In conclusion, one must agree that Israel is an interesting and fascinating part of the globe in which so much beliefs and strong ideology has been passed down for centuries. Personally, I see so many miracles that occur on a day to day basis in Israel that I can never find Israel dull or tedious. Empire rise and fall, but Israel manages to survive since the biblical times and establish statehood in present day is an incredible feat. There has been times in this research when I believed that Israel would get wiped out by the united Arab Nations or the PLO, but somehow a foreign aid comes along and pulls Israel from annihilation.
I also believe that Israel has God on their side. The same God guided the Jews from Egypt to Cannan and finally establishes Statehood for them will be with every fighting Israeli solder and every Israeli politician now and forever.
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