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Research paper topic: Homosexuality - 1260 words
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.. enes are arranged along 46 chromosomes and each chromosome contains tiny coils of DNA, deoxyribonucleic acid, which carries the instruction to manufacture a particular body substance. There was no such similar sharing in the same region among heterosexual men. Researchers have not yet compared the homosexuals genetic information to the other group. The finding does not explain all the homosexuals; seven out of forty homosexual brothers did not have the common genetic factor. The explanation for this is it might cause by other unknown genetic influence.
(LeVay/Hamer, 27-29). Since the DNA strand is long enough to contain hundreds of genes. Hamers team has not found the gene that makes some men gay but the Xq28 is one of the possibilities of the gay gene (Begley, Sharon, Hager, Mary) If homosexuality is inherited and the male homosexual gets the gay gene from the X-chromosome of his mother, then arent that twin brothers and other siblings of the family have a good chance of being genetically influenced by that trait. Looking for linkage, Hamer has conducted a random survey and a survey with families with gay brothers between the maternal and paternal relatives. The possibilities of maternal uncle and maternal cousin through aunt have the highest percentage of being gay.
Its from 7.3 % to 12.9% compared to the paternal uncle and cousin through aunt of 3.9% to 5.4%. Why are most gay men relatives are gay on their mothers side of the family? The possibility is a man has two chromosomes, X and Y. The Y chromosome is the sex chromosome and any traits that on the X chromosome pass to the child come mostly from his mother. Chances are she had inherited those traits from her side of the family. (Hamer/Copeland 111) In 1985, Richard C. Pillard and James D.
Weinrich conducted the first modern study on the pattern of homosexuality runs in families. The random pooled data for men show that about 57% of identical twins, 24% of fraternal twins and 13% of brothers of gay men are also gay. For women, 50% of the identical twin, 13% of sisters of the lesbians are also lesbians.(LeVay/Hamer 26) Data of homosexuality combined and analyzed, it showed a good possibility of family clustering of sexual orientation becomes evident for both sexes. But others say this finding reveals another significant problem with a born gay conclusion. The argument against the data indicating above is if homosexuality is inherited then identical twin brothers who share 100% of their genes should have 100% chance of being gay instead of 57%? The respond to this argument is in a gene there are two alleles. For example of Huntingtons disease, it comes in two alleles.
One is to suppress the gene and the other activates the disease. Therefore, the baby has a 50% to 50% change of his identical twin brother will get the same gay trait. Another example is Type 1 diabetes; this disease has only 30% active, so in another word, you could only have 30% chance of this gene will become activate. Therefore two identical brothers could have share the same gene for diabetes but one might develop it and one might not. The activeness of the gay gene is only 50%, for that reason, some twins do not share the same sexual orientation unless there is something that triggers those alleles to activate. There are traits that emerge at the different time of life, some at the beginning and others that emerge later on in time.
(Kangas 20) Another explanation is after the fertilized egg separated into two individuals. The DNA sequence might have a few changes and that could lead to the personality as well as the sexual orientation differences. This has not been proven, but it could be one of the possibilities of why identical twins do not have 100% chance of being gay. Bailey and Pillard say their research indicates that male sexual orientation is substantially genetic. Research on social factors has proven fruitless, with no evidence that parental behavior or even parents homosexuality affects the childrens sexual orientation.
(Pillard 32) Applying the homosexuality to the gene concept, New York psychiatrist Kenneth Paul Rosenberg believes that we, as people, should be more open-minded to the study of homosexuality because it could help to fight for gay and lesbian rights in this society. Hopefully it also could decrease an escalating hate crime rate and the discrimination toward homosexuals.(Horgan) Like any genetic research, finding the gene sequence is time consuming and expensive. The finding of Huntingtons disease took about a decade and cost millions of dollars. What are the advantages of the studys outcomes and who will be effects by it? Human sexual orientation is no ordinary topic or study. Its at the center of a fierce debate involving politics, the law, religion, ethics and the origins and meaning of human behavior. Many legal experts felt the evidence for a genetic link to homosexuality would strengthens the evidence for immutability and therefore cause tighter scrutiny of laws that permitted discrimination against gays and lesbians in housing, employment, or participation in the political process.
Others, though, argued that immutability was a red herring and that the real issue was equal protection, not biology. There were also ethical, medical and economic issues involved as well. Although scientists did not provide any test for the still hypothetical gay gene but we are heading in that direction. If such test were developed, might parents decide to screen the fetus for homosexuality, just as they do for Down syndrome and other genetic defects? Would some doctors regard homosexuality as a genetic defect that should be cured and weeded out of the population? Would insurance companies charge men with the gay gene more on coverage or refuse to serve them because they have a higher risk of AIDS faced by gay men? These are questions that worried many people. In addition, homosexuals are frequently the targets of discrimination and violence.
The treat of violence and discrimination is an obstacle to lesbian and gay peoples development. In a 1989 national survey, 5% of the gay men and 10% of the lesbians reported physical abuse and/or assault47% report some form of discrimination over their lifetime. Other research has show similarly high rates of discrimination or violence toward homosexuals (Yahoo.com, APA Q&A) Personally I do hope the genetic surgery will reveal the true nature of homosexual and find the right loci of the gay gene in the near future. Optimistically with finding of the biological influences on the gay gene can help to eliminate the discrimination and the escalating hate crimes rate toward the homosexuals. Homosexuals are normal people like the heterosexuals. They have feelings and their sexual orientation of attracting the same sex is innate.
They have no control over this destiny. Counseling, therapy or the environment cant change this so since we cant convert this then why dont we accept this and give those homosexuals all the respects and rights that they deserve like any other heterosexuals. Work cited Answer to Your Questions about Sexual Orientation and Homosexuality. APA Public Communication. *http://www.apa.org/pubinfo/orient.html. * Begley S.; Hager M.
(July 26, 1993) Newsweek. Vol. 122 Issue 4 Does DNA Make Some Men Gay? P59 2/3p, 1c Burr C. (Dec 16, 1996) Weekly Standard. Suppose There Is a Gay Gene What Then? P 22-26 John, H. (Nov 95).
Scientific American, Vol. 273 Issue 5, Gay Genes, Revisited p26, 5/6p, 1c Kangas S. (1999) Homosexuality Is Biologically Determined. Homosexuality: Opposing Viewpoints. Mary E. Williams, Greenhaven Press. 17-21 Gorman, C. (Sept 9, 1991) Time Magazine. Are Gay Men Born that Way? P 60-61 Pillard R.
(1999) The Causes of Homosexuality Are Probably Genetic. Homosexuality: Opposing Viewpoints. Mary E. Williams, Greenhaven Press. 27-34.
Research paper topics, free term papers, essays, sample research papers on Homosexuality