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Research paper example essay prompt: Affirmative Action - 1744 words
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.. from the same communities as their students they will be aware of the problems facing their community and that of their students, that way they can better help theses kids, than someone that lives outside of the children The community and has no idea of the problems they are facing. In 1984 their were seventy-one women professors out of 1,112 (6.4 per cent). They were not however, evenly distributed across subjects and departments, but were concentrated in conventionally female areas. Three out of five professors of library science are women, and five out of seven professors or nursing. Women are also notable represented in education ( seven out of forty-nine professors) and social work (six out of twenty- one professors).
In contrast there is only one women professor out of thir! ty-eight in business administration and one out of 147 in engineering(Webb 538). An examination of numbers of posts lost or gained between 1980 and 1984 also reveals that areas where women are most concentrated have been cut back most significantly: numbers of post in nursing, for example, have declined across all grades while numbers of posts in engineering and business administration have stayed constant or increased. A case study demonstrated that equal opportunity is far from a matter of following a simple programme(Webb 545). Sonia Liff was quoted as say Women and minorities fail not because they are less Abel to carry out the tasks; they are excluded because of the way that they necessary qualification are defined. The competition is structured against women and minorities because the job is perceived as requiring skills, experience and working patterns far mor likely to be found amongst white men, or indeed seen as inherently male. What should be asked of employers is not that they accept less qualified, less able women or minorities in preference to white men but that they rethink what the job requires that do not rule out competent women or minarets.
In Franks v. Bowman Transportation Co., Bowman Transportation Co. discriminated against black applicants for jobs as truck drivers within the company to more desirable position. The lower courts found in favor of the blacks in this predicament, ordering that they be given preference in the future job opening. The Burger court took the previous ruling against Bowman Transportation Co.
One step further and ruled that retroactive seniority could be awarded to racial minorities who had been discriminated against in violation of Title VII (Janosik 1204). A major objective of Title VII, noted by the court majority, is to provide appropriate compensation for those injured because of discrimation in the workplace. Even though the court ruled that awarding a minority who has been discriminated against is acceptable, it might not be so in some cases, so compenstating minorities for past discriminatory action upon them by some other company would not apply, but if a company does discrimate against someone, the person that they discriminate against is applicable for compensation. After the mid-1970's an increasing number of Burger Courts cases involved the widely debated issue of Affirmative Action in employment (Janosik 1210). Society must realize that Affirmative Action plans is rather a safety net to prevent discriminatory acts against non whites males than just a method of employing minorities and women into the workforce there is substantial evidence of the countinuing veritical and horizontal occupational segregation between men, women and minorities( Webb 533).
Yet many people against Affirmative Action see Affirmative Action plans and Executive orders as an advantage that is given to minorities and woment by the Federal Government and that is why they cannot see Affirmative Action plans and executive orders as safety nets for women and minorities. Those opposed to the idea of affirmative action feel that affirmative action is actually reversed discrimination at work; but a recent study by Alfred Blumorosen, a professor at Rutgers University law school, found that only a few dozen reported cases of reverse discrimination in federal courts over the past four years, most of which were rejected by the courts. (America Online 1). These same people also feel that Affirmative Action leads to lower standards of education needed to work, this is totally untrue. Affirmative action plans are not placing people in job that they are not qualified for. The people that are given job by Affirmative Action plans have graduated from four year universities or have the Assossiates degree.
No one can stay employed in a job if they do not have skills to preform their task. To say Affirmative action acts on the basis of prejudice is not true. Affirmative Action does not display bias or has irrational hatred of a particular group, race, or religion. Affirmative action plans is just a way of helping poeple to get jobs. Republican lawmakers and presidential hopefulls are vying with eac other to stake out the strongest position for curtailing or abolishing racial and gender preferences in federal programs (Gottlieb551).
Robert Doles closest rival, senator Phil Gramm of Texas, pledged to wipe out minority preference in the ferderal government with a stroke of a pen if elected. This is a policy that needs to be overturned. Gramm said on CBS Face the Nation April 16. Yet none of these politican have a solution more effective of preventing discrimination in jobs and at the same time helps minorites find jobs. President Clinton, is facing a no-win situation betweeen traditional civil rights constitutenciesand the many angry white males in this country.
These men wish to change federal affimative action policies but promise to continue efforts to eliminate discrimination. Yet no plan or proposal that Republican lawmakers, or angry white males have created has help decrease the number of discrimantory act by a company or has helped minorities find jobs than Affirmative Action plans existing today. These same Republican lawmakers are pushing ahead with efforts to unravel affirmative action, encouraged and empowered by a dramatic Supreme court ruling that cas doubt on federal programs seeking to advance women and minorities. The high court June 12 handed down a 5-4 opinion in a closely watched case, Adarand Construction v. Pena, that challenged a federal Affirmative Action Program. The majority opinion written by Justice Sandra Day OConnor, did not actually strike down any Affirmative Action programs, but it criticized the moral justification for Affirmative Aciton, saying that race conscious programs can amount to unconstitutional reverse discrimination and even harm those they seek to advance.
Yet they had not proven any way in which Affirmative Action can harm those they seek to advance. Republican had been preparing a legislative assault on federal Affirmative Action, either by eliminating programs or with a sweeping measure to outlaw virtually all federal preferecnes on the basis of race or gender. Their targets include scores of congressional and executive branch initiatives that offer special consideration or set-aside for women, minorities and others in federal contracting and hiring. This proves that Republicans wish to eliminate Affirmative Action plan and replace it with nothing. With nothing to help women or minorities their is minimal chances of them competing in the job market.
In defending the program, the Clinton administration stressed that white-owned companies can quaify for bonuses given by Affrimative Action Plans if they prove that they are Socially or enconomically disadvantaged. Some critics of Affirmative Action want to adopt social or economic hardship as a criterion for all Affirmative Action plans. Civi rights groups say they are not opposed to using socioeconomic disadvantages, but want to keep policies specifically aimed at women and minorities too(America Online 3). Speculation about the future of Affirmative Action must go beyond prognosis of the courts configuration and estimations of its respect for precedents said John Naibandian of University of Kansas (Public Administration Reveiw 43). He was also quoted as saying , Over an 18-year period, adminstrators hve become sensitized to court decisionexpressing the value of social equity.
It is unreasonable to anticpate sudden administrative reversal of these impacts now regardlass of Court action (Public Administration Review 43). Some observers have suggested that the solution to racial inequality in the United States lies largely in a two-pronged attack on discrimination in educationm and employment. If such a solution is possible, certainly the Supreme Court will play a role. But, in a system of separation of powers, it is axiimatic that only so much can be accomplished by even the most activist Courts. That is why all human beings must strive to understand the total implication of what they do.
They must help each other see that there is a problem in employing women and minorities. Saul Solano Honegger English 102 October 18, 1995 Affirmative action: Is it a form of Racisim? Thesis: Although many people believe affirmative action is a form of racism, it is actually used to help minorities find employment in an otherwise racist world. I. Civil War A. Laws passed during the civil war B.
Plans used to help laws II. JFK and Excecutive order A. Steps taken by JFK B. JFK Executive order taking effect III. Other Presidents A. Harry Truman controbution to Affirmative Action B.
FDR controbution to Affirmative Action C. D. Eisnehower Executive order IV. Court Cases A. Firefighters Local Union No.1784 v. Stotts B. Stelle v. Louisvill & Nashville Railroad C.
Griggs v. Duke Power Co. D. McDonnell Douglas Corp. v. Green E.
Hazelwood School District v. United States V. Those against Affirmative Action A. Why are white male against Affirmative Aciton Plans B. Why white male dislike the idea of affirmative action Kaus, Mickey. The End of Equality New York: Basic,1992.
Urofsky, Melvin. The Conflicts of Rights New York: Scribner 1990. Verba, Sidney, and Gary R. Orren. Equality in America Massaschuettes Harvard, 1984.
Hugh, Graham The American Judical System New York:Scribner, 1987. Jost, Kenneth. America Online Internet, 1995 Webb, Janette and Sonia, Liff. Play he white man: the social construction of fairness and competition in equal opportunity. The Sociological Reveiw v.36, Aug. 88 532-51 Perman, Florence.
The players and the problems in the Eeo enforcement process: a status report Pulbic Administration Reveiw v.48, July/Aug. 88, 827-33 Boris Eileen and Honey Michael. Gender, race and the policies of the Labor Department. Monthly Labor Review v.111, Feb. 88, 26-36. Nalbandian, John.
The U.S. Supreme courts consensus on Affirmative Action. Public Administration Reveiw. v.49, Jan./Feb. 89, 38-45 Tatel, David and Minchber, Elliot.
The Supreme Courts 1987 decision on voluntary Affirmative Action. Public Management. v.69, Dec. 87, 3-5 Steel, Brents and Lovrich, Nicholas P. Equality and Efficiency Tradeoffs in Affirmative Action. The Social Science Journal v.24, Nov.
87, 53-70 Leonard, Jonathan S. What was Affirmative Action. The American Economic Review v.76, May 86, 359-63.
Research paper topics, free essay prompts, sample research papers on Affirmative Action